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Physcial And Health Education (P.H.E)

PHE

Physical Fitness

Meaning of Physical Fitness Physical fitness is an aspect of total fitness that is concerned with the physical well-being of an individual. Physical fitness is the ability of an individual to carry out his or her daily activities without undue fatigue and still have energy for social activities.   Physical fitness can also be defined as the ability to perform one’s daily occupational activities and still have strength for recreational and emergency activities. Hence a person is said to be physically fit when he or she has ability to carry out daily activities without undue fatigue and have enough energy left to enjoy leisure time and to meet unforeseen emergencies.   Components of Physical fitness The components of Physical fitness can be grouped into two.  These are! The health related component Performance or skill related component   The Health related Component This is directly related to the health of an… Read More »Physical Fitness

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AGEING AND DEATH EDUCATION

What is ageing? Ageing is defined as a process of growing old, in which the physiological and skeletal system become weak and strength, power, ability e. t. c are lost gradually. Ageing is the process of growing old, reach the end of useful life, it is also a time in life when one becomes obsolescent. What is Death? Death is defined as a state of no life or termination of life of individual. Physical and biological changes Vision loss and significant hearing loss Loss of memory may occur Nutritional status and enjoyment of food are often affected Ligaments, structure and growth undergo structural changes                      Measures against ageing Rest and sleep Exercise Nutrition Having more close friends Greater participation in activities Visiting with family Addressing basic needs   Deaths Death is the termination of the biological function that defines living organisms. Death begins when the heart stop beating How to… Read More »AGEING AND DEATH EDUCATION

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FAMILY LIFE AND SEX EDUCATION

MEANING OF FAMILY The family is the primary environment in which we all grow and develop. It provides the basic material needed for our survival, such as; food, shelter, clothing and our basic needs, guidance and love etc.   DEFINITION OF TERM Family is a group of people that are related to one another by blood or marriage. It a basic unit of the society that is responsible for supporting caring for and preparing children for adulthood. Life means the period between birth and death. Education is the process in which a person acquires skills, value, and knowledge in order to do certain things.                                  Responsibilities of each Member of the family                                 Roles of the father The breadwinner of the family Maintain discipline Provide education for the children Provision of money for the family Makes important decisions                                 Roles of the mother Preparing food for the family Keeping the house… Read More »FAMILY LIFE AND SEX EDUCATION

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FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION

Female Genital- it refers to female outer or external sex organs; Mutilation simply refers to damage or change something so much that is completely spoiled or ruined.   Female genital mutilation, it is the removal or cutting off of some or all of the  female external sensitive genitals part of the female organ (clitoris) in order to reduce her sexual urge. This act is also called female circumcision. The common parts affected are the clitoris, labia minora and labia majora. This practice used to be very common in many African  countries including Nigeria but with strong, continuous advocacy, campaign and education, the practice has been reduced to the breast minimum and is gradually fading away and tending towards total eradication.            Reasons for the practice of female genital mutilation Some communities have the belief that cutting off a part in a female child will reduce her sexual sensitivity and promiscuous… Read More »FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION

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HOCHEY

BRIEF HISTORY OF HOCKEY Hockey is a both team and field game played with hockey sticks and a ball. The game originated from the ancient Greeks, Romans and Persians as early as 514 BC. The rich people played their Hockey on horse backs known as “POLO” In 1876, Modern Hockey clubs were formed. Ten years later, in1886 a well constituted modern Hockey Association was formed. In 1900, International Hockey Federation (IHF) was formed with standard rules and regulations.  Nigeria Hockey Federation (NHF) was formed in 1962.   The basic skills The dribbling The tackling The drive / hitting The stopping The passing The scooping The flick The goal keeping                                        The nature of the game The game is started by a centre pass. The formation on the field resembles that of football as the number of players is the same The objective of the games is to get the ball… Read More »HOCHEY

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COMBINED EVENTS

Combined events are combination of track and field events. It started during the ancient Olympic Games to test the all-round athletic ability of the competitors. There are three types of combined events. These are: Decathlon (for men) Heptathlon (for both men and women) Pentathlon (for women)   Decathlon: The term “decathlon” is a Greek term that means “ten test.” The decathlon consists of ten athletics events.They are events mainly for men. They are held on two consecutive days. Points are awarded for each event to find the best all-round athlete. An athlete that compete in decathlon is called decathlete   First day:                    Second day: 100m hurdle         (i) 110m hurdle High jump            (ii) Discus Shot put            (iii) Pole vault Long jump            (iv) Javelin 400m race            (v) 1,500m race   Pentathlon: The term “Pentathlon” is a Greek term… Read More »COMBINED EVENTS

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PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE BASIC OF JAVELIN

Javelin is a field event which involves the throwing of an implement (called Javelin) with one hand for distance over a horizontal surface. The competitor is called javelin thrower. The Javelin consists of three parts, the shaft, a cord grip and a mental head. The cord is the grip which is about the centre of gravity.                     JAVELIN: EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES These are: The implement (Javelin) The red and white flag The writing materials The score sheets The Javelin pitch The measuring tape The throwers spike/Canvass The vest    JAVELIN: BASIC SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES The grip:-The grip consists of grasping the javelin at the rear of the binding so that the second finger encircles the shaft and barely touches the extended thumb. The carriage:-The javelin must points to the front and carried above the shoulder with steady movement. The Run-up:-The purpose of the run-up is to enable the thrower to… Read More »PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE BASIC OF JAVELIN

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Field Event: POLE VAULT

Pole vault is a field event which involves jumping over a horizontally placed obstacle (bar) that is supported by two up-rights. The vaulter uses a pole as a lever for the uplift of the body. The pole vaulter is expected to lift himself or herself high up with the pole from a single take-off to clear the bar. The competitor is called a pole vaulter. It is performed by both male and female athletes                             SKILLS IN POLE VAULT Basic Skills in pole vault include the followings Flexibility Agility Speed Determination Concentration Muscular Strength Courage   POLE VAULT; EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES These are: The two uprights The crossbar  The supports for the crossbar  The landing foam  The runway The take off box The vaulting pole   Phases of pole vault The grip or hold Carrying the pole The run-up The plant The take off The swing up The turning The… Read More »Field Event: POLE VAULT

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CAUSES OF DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION

Causes of Diseases Diseases are caused by the following factors: Inadequate nutrition Lack of Exercise Dirty environment Use of unsafe water Improper disposal of sewage and refuse Not seeking and getting treatment on time Overcrowding and poor ventilation Bad/poor health habits Ignorance   Preventive Measures against Diseases Diseases can be prevented in the following ways: Adequate nutrition Adequate warm up and Exercise Clean environment Use of safe water Proper disposal of sewage and refuse Seeking and getting treatment on time Avoid Overcrowding and poor ventilation Good hygiene Health education Immunization Vaccination   EVALUATION Identify health habits or practices that could lead to outbreak of diseases in your school community. As a student, how would you prevent outbreak of infectious diseases in your school?   See also DISEASES CAUSED BY PATHOGENS PATHOGENS THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS

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DISEASES CAUSED BY PATHOGENS

DISEASES CAUSED BY PATHOGENS The following are the diseases caused by pathogens: Typhoid Diarrhoea Tuberculosis Syphilis Chicken pox Dysentery Cholera Measles Influenza Mumps Common cold   Effects of Diseases on Athletes’ Performance in Physical Activities Diseases have some negative effects in athletes’ performance in physical activities. The following are some of them: Decreased performance Muscle wasting Impaired motor coordination Circulation deregulation Unexpected death Severe injuries   Common Athletes’ Infection The following are common athletes’ infections: Viral hepatitis Leptospirosis Gastroenteritis Bacterial infections Herpes Myocarditis   EVALUATION What are the effects of disease on athlete’s performance in physical activities? Mention 3 common athletes’ infections.   See also PATHOGENS THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put

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PATHOGENS, DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION

Meaning of Communicable Diseases These are diseases that can be transferred from one person to another. Meaning of Disease A disease is a state in which one departs from normal functioning state of the body and is unwell. Meaning of Pathogens Disease causing organisms are called pathogens, or more commonly as germs, “Most pathogens are microscopic and are referred to as microbes or micro-organisms. Examples are, bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa, parasitic warms. Types of Diseases Air-borne diseases Food borne diseases Insect borne diseases Contagious and sexually transmitted diseases Water-borne diseases   EVALUATION What is disease? Describe pathogens and give examples. List five types of diseases.   See also THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put ATHLETICS: DISCUS

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THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD

Meaning of Food Food is anything we eat whether solid or liquid that nourishes the body. Importance of Food Food is important for the following reasons: Food eliminates hunger It provides energy for various physical activities It enhances growth It is a resistance to disease Food makes one to recover from illness It serves as a source of income It is eaten for the purpose of adequate nutrition Food makes for healthy living   EVALUATION What is food? What are the importance of food?   See also MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put ATHLETICS: DISCUS ATHLETICS: SHOT PUT

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MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD

Meaning of Food Food is any substance which when taken into the body, serves to nourish and build up tissues as well as provide needed energy. Classes of Food There are six classes of food, namely: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats and oil Mineral salts Vitamins Water Classes of Food Sources Functions Carbohydrate yam, garri, cassava, yam flour, maize, wheat, potato Provides the body with energy Proteins meat, beans, fish, soya beans, eggs, peanuts, cheese, chicken. For growth and repair of body tissues. Fats and oils palm oils, groundnuts oil, butter, margarine, sardine, pork, egusi oil, cod liver oil Provides the body with heat and energy for daily activities. Mineral salts milk, meat, liver, cheese, vegetable and sea foods Proper functioning of the body. Water rain, spring, brooks, vegetables, fruits, beverages and tea For easy digestion and maintenance of body fluid. Vitamins liver, eggs, fish, oil, citrus, and tomatoes For protection against… Read More »MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD

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MEANING, TYPES OF FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS

Meaning of Food Food is any substance which when taken into the body of living organism is capable of maintaining growth and development. It regulates the body functions and controls harmful or dangerous substances that might enter into the body. Different Types of Food Rice Eggs Garri Vegetables Semovita Yam Bread Beans Tea Porridge   Basic Food Groups It is necessary to classify food types into groups. There are five groups. Milk and milk producer group Meat group Fruits and vegetable group Bread and cereal group Tuber group   EVALUATION What is food? How many classes of food do we have? List them. Name some foods you know.   See also Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put ATHLETICS: DISCUS ATHLETICS: SHOT PUT BENEFITS OF RECREATION AND DANCE RECREATION

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RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SHOT PUT AND DISCUS THROW

Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put and Discuss Throw The following are the rules and regulations governing shot put and discuss throw: (i) The throwing sequence must begin within the sector and end within the sector. (ii) The thrower must not step beyond the step board before and after the throw. (iii) The competitors are credited with the best of their trials (iv) The missile must land within the throwing sector. (v) All throwers are expected to back the spectators during the throw. (vi) Missiles are to be rolled back to the sector after throw and not to be thrown.   Safety Precautions in Shot Put and Discus Throw The following safety precautions are to the observed in shot put and discus throw: (i) All officials and spectators must stay clear of throwing sector during the throw. (ii) Adequate warm up must be ensured by all athletes. (iii) Before and… Read More »RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SHOT PUT AND DISCUS THROW

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ATHLETICS: DISCUS

Definition of Discus Discus is a field event which involves throwing a missile called discuss for a horizontal distance. A competitor is allowed three trials; the throwing is made from within a throwing circle of 2.50m in diameter to a landing sector of 40o.   Table of Specification for Discus SEX WEIGHT MEN 2 KG WOMEN 1 KG   Basic Skills and Techniques in Discus (i) Grip/Hold (ii) Stance (iii) Swing (iv) Turns (v) Release (vi) Follow through the sector (vii) Recovery Note: The discus must land within the landing sector which is 40o and both legs must be behind the metal rim.   Execution of Basic Skills and Techniques in Discuss (i) The hold: The discus is placed on the palm and the spread fingers curl over to hold it. (ii) The stance: The thrower stands at the rear of the circle with the feet slightly apart and backing… Read More »ATHLETICS: DISCUS

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ATHLETICS: SHOT PUT

Definition of Shot Put Shot Put is a field event that involves the putting of a missile called the shot for a horizontal distance. A competitor is allowed three trials. Put is made from within a circle of 2.135m in diameter to a landing sector of 400.   Table of Specification for Shot Put SEX WEIGHT MEN 7.26 KG WOMEN 4 KG   Basic Skills and Techniques of Shot Put (i) The hold (ii) The stance (iii) The glide (iv) The release (v) The follow through (vi) The recovery   Execution of Basic Skills and Techniques of Shot Put (i) The hold: The shot is held by the fingers and not on the palm. (ii) The stance: The stance depends on the methods of putting as there are various methods Types of Putting the Shot (a) The standing put (b) The side shift put (c) The drive or glide.  … Read More »ATHLETICS: SHOT PUT

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BENEFITS OF RECREATION AND DANCE

The Benefits of Recreation and Dance The following are the benefits of recreation and dance: (i) They are an unconscious use of leisure time. (ii) They reduce juvenile delinquency, crimes. (iii) They create room for social integration. (iv) They help to develop socially acceptable behaviour. (v) They help in physical development, physical fitness. (vi) They give an opportunity for the development of sports skills. (vii) They provide an opportunity for the release of tension. (viii) They provide the forum for fun and enjoyment.   EVALUATION What is recreation? List two components of recreation. Differentiate between leisure and rest.   See also RECREATION PHYSICAL FITNESS PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION WATER SUPPLY

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RECREATION, LEISURE AND DANCE ACTIVITIES

Definition of Recreation Recreation can be defined as participation in sporting activities during our leisure time. It is a voluntary participation in which no monetary gain is expected. It is done after one’s daily job, usually for fun, enjoyment, social and physical benefits.   Definition of Leisure and Rest Leisure is one’s free time and this embraces what one does to gainfully occupy his free time. Rest is a state of being free from activity and disturbance. It helps to prevent tension. The best state of rest is sleep.   Definition of Dance Dance is expressive movement of turning twisting and rolling of the body (parts) to conform with the rhythm of a sound, beat or music. It is a way of expressing our inner feelings of joy and happiness.   Components of Recreation Recreation covers a wide range of activities which can be grouped into: (i) Indoor recreational activities.… Read More »RECREATION, LEISURE AND DANCE ACTIVITIES

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PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PROGRAMME

Exercises to Develop Strength, Endurance and Flexibility The following exercises are designed to develop strength, endurance and flexibility: Strength development: Pull up, press up, knee bend, sit up, weight training. Endurance development: Circuit training (running on the spot— squat thrust—- press up—Harvard step up—-tread mill—-windmill—-squat jump—-sit up) Flexibility development: Windmill, duck walk, hurdle stretch, bending from the trunk, bending the neck sideways, bending forward and backward, trunk flexion standing, trunk extension.   Safety Precautions While Performing Exercises The following safety precautions should be observed while performing exercises: (i) You must know your limitation. (ii) The person must not force himself to perform activity he cannot perform. (iii) There must be general warm up before performing activities. (iv) Students should be allowed to practice for some time before testing. (v) Target should be set on each activity. (vi) Activity must be appropriate to the age and weight of the student. (vii)… Read More »PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PROGRAMME

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