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PESTS OF CROPS | MEANING, TYPES, CLASSIFICATION, IMPORTANT

MEANING OF CROP PEST

A crop pest can be defined as any organism capable of causing damage to the crop.

 TYPES OF CROP PEST

Important crop pest are grouped in to the following classes;

  1. Insects
  2. Birds
  3. Rodents
  4. Monkeys
  5. Man
  6. Nematodes

 

CLASSIFICATION OF INSECT PEST

  1. Biting and chewing insects: they possess strong mandible and maxillae (mouth parts) which enable them to bite and chew plant parts e.g termites, grasshoppers, leafworm, mantids, locusts and beetles.
  2. Piercing and sucking insects: they possess stong mouthparts called proboscis which enable them to pierce through plants and suck liquid materials from them. Examples are aphids, cotton strainers, mealy bugs, scale insects, capsids, mirids and white flies.
  3. Burrowing insects: they and their larva stage are capable of burrowing the tissue of the plant parts or fruits or seeds. Examples are bean beetles, stem borers, maize weevils and rice weevils.

 EVALUATION

  1. What are crop pests?
  2. List the three classes of insect pests.

 

IMPORTANT PESTS OF MAJOR CROPS

Pest Crops Attacked Natures of Damages and Economic Importance Prevention and Control Measures
Stem burrower Cereals e.g. rice, maize, guinea corn. (i)       Larvae bore holes into stems

(ii)     They eat up the tissues

(iii)   They weaken the plant

(i)       Uproot and burn infected plant

(ii)     Spray with insecticides e.g. Gammalin 20

(iii)    Reduced growth and yield

(iv)   Early planting

(v)     Crop rotation

Army Worm Cereals e.g. maize (i)      Larvae invade and eat up leaves and stem

(ii)    Reduce photosynthesis

(iii)  Retarded growth

(iv)   Reduced yield

(i)       Hand picking

(ii)     Spray with insecticides. E.g. DDT

 

Pod burrower Legumes e.g. cowpea, soyabeans (i)      Larvae bore into the pod

(ii)    They eat up the seeds

(iii)  Reduced yield

(i)      Crop rotation

(ii)    Early harvesting

(iii)   Spray with insecticides

(iv)   Introduce diseases.

Aphids Legumes e.g. cowpea, soyabeans (i)      Stunted growth

(ii)    Galls on leaves

(iii)  Vectors of disease e.g. rosette, mosaic disease of cowpea

(i)      Spray with insecticides to kill vector

(ii)    Uproot and burn infected plant

 

Leaf beetle Legumes e.g. cowpea, soyabeans (i)       They eat up the leaves

(ii)     Reduce photosynthesis

(iii)   Reduced yield

(i)      Spray with insecticides

(ii)    Use pest-resistant varieties.

Cocoa mirids (capsids) Beverages e.g. Cocoa (i)       They inject toxic saliva into plant

(ii)     Transmits fungal diseases

(iii)   Reduced yield

(iv)   Stunted growth

(i)      Spray with insecticides e.g. Gammalin 20

(ii)    Regular Weeding

Yam beetles Tubers e.g yam (i)       Boreholes into yam tubers

(ii)     Reduced yield

(iii)   Reduction in quality and market value

(i)      Dust yam setts with Adrin dust before planting

(ii)    Crop rotation

Cassava Mealybugs Tubers e.g cassava (i)      Twisting of stem and reduced internodes

(ii)    Swelling of shoots

(iii)  Reduced yield

(i)       Early planting

(ii)     Use pest-resistant varieties.

(iii)   Cutting treatment

(iv)   Spray with insecticides

Green Spidermite Tubers e.g cassava (i)      They feed on the leaves

(ii)    Reduce rate of photosynthesis

(iii)  Reduced yield

(i)       Use biological control

(ii)     Spray with insecticides

Variegated Grasshopper Tubers e.g Cassava, yam (i)      Adults and larvae eat up the leaves and stem

(ii)    Reduce the rate of photosynthesis

(iii)  Reduced growth

(iv)   Reduced yield

(i)      Hand picking

(ii)    Spray with insecticides e.g. Adrex 40

Cotton Stainer Cotton (i)      They pierce and suck sap from plants

(ii)    Produce toxic saliva

(iii)  Transmit diseases

(iv)   Reduce quality of boll

(v)      Leaf distortion

(i)       Hand picking

(ii)     Spray with insecticides

Cotton bollworm Cotton (i)      Larvae feeds on the seeds of cotton

(ii)    Crop rotation

(iii)  Destroy the lint and reduce its quality

(iv)   Premature fall of cotton boll

(i)       Spray with insecticides to kill insects

(ii)     Burn cotton plant debris after harvesting.

Thrips Vegetables e.g. Onion, tomato (i)    Browning of leaves

(ii)  Wilting of plant

(iii)        Reduced yield

(i)       Spray with insecticides
Leaf rollers Vegetable (i)    Rolling and twisting of leaves

(ii)  Reduction in rate of photosynthesis

(iii)        Reduced yield

(i)       Spray with insecticides e.g. Vetox 85
Leaf beetle Vegetables e.g. pepper, okra and tomato (i)    They eat up leaves and stems

(ii)  Reduced photosynthesis

(iii)         Reduction in yield and quality

(iv)   Spray with appropriate insecticides e.g. Vetox 85
Bean beetle, grain weevils Stored produce e.g. rice, cowpea and maize. (i)    Boreholes into grains and eat them up

(ii)  Reduce the quality of stored produce

(iii)        Reduced farmer’s income

(iv) Reduce the market value of grains

(v)   Reduce viability of insfested grains

(i)         Early harvesting

(ii)       Proper storage of produce

(iii)     Proper cleaning and fumigation of store with phostoxin tablets or with lindane dust.

(iv)      Store grains over fire places

(v)        Proper drying of seeds to reduce moisture content and kill the eggs and larva of pests.

Birds Rice, maize, millets and sorghum (i)    Feed on grains in the field

(ii)  Reduction in quality and yield

(iii)        Reduction in income of farmers

(i)         Use of bird scarer or scare crow

(ii)       Use of cage traps with baits

(iii)     Shooting with catapult

(iv)      Drumming or noise making on the farm

(v)        Use of explosive mechanism at regular intervals

(vi)      Use of avicides

(vii)    Fencing /Screening farms in greenhouse

Rodents e.g. bush rabbit, rats and squirrel Rice, yam, cassava and fruits (i)       They feed on crops

(ii)     Destroy whole plant

(iii)   Reduction in yield

(iv)   Increase in cost of production

(i)         Trapping with braits.

(ii)       Use of rodenticides

(iii)     Use of string/wire traps

(iv)      Use of predators e.g. dogs and cats

(v)        Clean weeding of farms

(vi)      Shooting and fencing

(vii)    Use of pit traps

Monkeys Cocoa mango, banana, and orange (i)       They eat up the fruits

(ii)     Reduce the quality of fruits

(iii)   Losses to the farmer

(i)         Use traps

(ii)       Shooting with gun where possible.

See also  LABOUR

EVALUATION

  1. List two ways of controlling cocoa mirids
  2. List two ways of controlling monkeys

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INSECT PESTS IN CROP PRODUCTION

  1. They destroy crops in the fields through their biting, chewing, boring, sucking and defoliation activities.
  2. They cause reduction in viability of stored produce
  3. Spot of injuries by insect pests predispose crops to pathogen attack
  4. They increase the cost of production as they are being controlled
  5. They render vegetables and fruits unattractive and unmarketable
  6. Some are of vectors of disease
  7. The profits of farmers are reduced
  8. They reduce the quality of produce either in the store or in the field
  9. They generally reduce the yield of crops
  10. They can also cause total death of crop plants.
See also  CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. What are pathogens?
  2. List five pathogens you know
  3. List four economic importance of insect pest

 READING ASSIGNMENT

Revision questions 3 and 8 Essential Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools Chapter 26, page 247

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

SECTION A

  1. _____ is responsible for damages in crops. A. weeds B. water C. air D. pests
  2. The following are rodents except _____. ?A. rat B. grasscutter C.squirrel D.monkey
  3. The following are bitting and chewing insect except ____. A. termites B. capsids C.locust beetles
  4. Stem burrowers will attack A. cereals B. legumes C. tubers D. spices
  5. Cotton strainers and meleabugs are examples of _____ insects. A. biting B. chewing C. piercing D. burrowing

 SECTION B

  1. What are pests
  2. List the five types of pests
  3. A. List five effects of pests in crop production
  4. List three control measures of plant disease

See also

DISEASES OF CROPS | MEANING, CAUSES, EFFECTS, CONTROL

FLORICULTURE – ORNAMENTAL PLANTS | IMPORTANCE, SPECIES, CULTIVATION, SOURCES, MAINTENANCE

FOREST MANAGEMENT

MEANING OF PASTURES AND FORAGE CROPS | FULL EXPLANATION

LIVESTOCK PARASITES AND THEIR LIFE CYCLES

 

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