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Pathogens, Diseases and their Prevention

Diseases Caused by Pathogens

Pathogens are organisms that cause diseases. Majority of those organisms are micro – organisms which can only be seen by the microscopes.



Disease means illness or disorder of the body or mind. In other words, disease is a condition of abnormal function involving any structure, part or system of an organism.


Pathogens or Disease Causative agents

  1. Bacteria
  2. Viruses
  3. Fungi
  4. Protozoa
  5. Worms
  6. Vector e.g. insects


Types of disease

  1. Communication diseases
  2. Non – Communication diseases


Communicable Diseases

These are diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another.


Pathogens enter into the body

  1. Through the mouth or nose
  2. Through the intestine
  3. Through the skin
  4. Through the anus


Types of Communicable Disease

  1. Airborne disease
  2. Waterborne disease
  3. Contaminated foods disease
  4. Contagious/skin contact disease
  5. Animal/Insect bites disease

Examples of Communicable Disease

  1. Measles
  2. Malaria
  3. Mumps
  4. Pneumonia
  5. Cholera
  6. Ring worm
  7. Syphilis
  8. Small pox
  9. Tuberculosis
  10. Whooping cough
  11. Dysentery
  12. Flu
  13. Typhoid/Yellow fever
  14. Gonorrhea
  15. Meningitis
  16. Influenza
  17. I.D.S etc.



  1. Name the two types of disease that exist.
  2. List the ways pathogens enter into our body.
  3. Mention the types of communicable disease.


Non – Communication diseases

Non – Communication diseases are diseases that cannot be transmitted from one person to another.


Examples of Non – communicable Disease

  1. Tetanus
  2. Malaria
  3. Kwashiorkor
  4. Marasmus
  5. Pellagra
  6. Cholera
  7. Cancer
  8. Diabetes
  9. Hypertension
  10. Stroke
  11. Sickle cell anaemia
  12. Asthma
  13. Epilepsy


Diseases Preventive Measures 

  1. Wash the hand properly before eating and after using the toilet
  2. Cook your foods well before eating e.g. pork and beef.
  3. Fresh fruits that are not cooked must be thoroughly washed with clean water
  4. Avoid moving near an infected persons e.g. cough and catarrh
  5. Always boil your water where treated water is not available.
  6. Keep your fingers clean and cut short your finger nails
  7. Avoid sharing personal belonging with others e.g. cups, combs, pants, singlet, towel, brush and others.
  8. Treat wounds and sores and never leave them exposed.
  9. Ensure good sanitation in and around the house.
  10. Fumigate your surroundings regularly.



  1. Explain the following terms:
  2. Pathogens
  3. Mention any five disease causative agents.



  1. ____________ are micro-organisms that can cause disease Man    B. Disease   C. Pathogens   D. None of the above
  2. The illness or disorder of the mind and body is called ___________ Disease    B. Man
  3. Pathogens D. All of the above
  4. Pathogens can enter into the body through the following ways except ________ Nose   B. Skin   C. Intestine   D. None of the above
  5. Diseases that can be spread from one person to another is called _________ communicable   B. Non-communicable    C. bacteria   D. fungi
  6. Which of the following is not types of communicable diseases? Airborne disease
  7. Waterborne diseases C. Contaminated food diseases D. None of the above



  1. List out five examples of communicable disease.
  2. State any five preventive measures of diseases you know.

See also

Contact and Non – Contact Sports

Benefits of Contact and Non – Contact Sports

Examples of Non – Contact Sports

Contact and Non – Contact Sports

Water Supply

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