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NUTRITION

Nutrition is the process of taking in food to get energy and maintain life. It is also called feeding in living organisms.

FOOD

Food is any substance which when eaten is used to maintain life and growth.

Importance of Food

  1. To give energy
  2. To maintain life
  3. It makes us grow
  4. To make one stay healthy
  5. It helps to build the body and repair worn-out tissues
  6. It enables the body to fight against diseases.

FOOD ITEMS OR FOOD STUFFS

These are items or things that we eat. Examples are rice, beans, yam, garri, fish, groundnut etc.

MealThis is a combination of two or more food items eaten together.

DietThis refers to the meals that we eat everyday

SOURCES OF FOOD

Food items can be classified into two sources

  1. Plants
  2. Animals

Plant sources

  1. Rootsg. cassava, carrot, etc.
  2. Underground stems e.g. Irish potato, yam, onion etc.
  3. Fruitsg. palm oil, tomato, guinea corn, maize etc.
  4. Seedsg. beans, groundnut oil, rice etc.

Animal Sources

These include meat, cheese, chicken, egg etc.

CLASSES OF FOOD

Food can be grouped according to the nutrients they contain and the functions they perform:

  1. Carbohydrates:

Sources: Rice, Cassava, wheat, maize, millet, potato etc.

Function: It gives us energy.

  1. Protein

Source: Meat, Fish, beans, groundnut, milk, egg, melon etc.

Functions:       (i) Repairs of worn-out tissues

(ii) It promote growth

(iii) It gives us energy when carbohydrates is lacking in the body.

  1. Fats and oils

Sources: Palm oil, groundnut oil, margarine, butter

Functions:       (i)         Act as insulator and prevent heat loss

(ii)        Provides much energy

(iii)       It forms part of cell membrane

(iv)       It cushions body organs.

  1. Vitamins

Source: Leafy vegetables, fruits (like oranges, pawpaw, etc.), egg, liver, palm oil.

Functions:       (i)         Promotes healthy body and growth in children.

(ii)        Prevent diseases

  1. Mineral salts:

Sources: Fruit, eggs, milk, dried fish, vegetables

Functions:       (i)         Aids the formation of good bones, teeth, blood, meat and liver

  1. Water:

Source: Rain, spring, river, well

Functions:       (i)         component of the blood and flesh

(ii)        Aids digestion

  1. Roughages:

Source: Vegetables

Functions:  (i)  makes food to pass through the digestive system easily.

NUTRIENTS

A nutrient is a chemical or food that provides what living things need to live a healthy life and grow well.  The different classes of food can also be called nutrients.

BALANCED DIET

It is a diet that contains the correct combination of all the classes of food in the required amount or proportions.

Importance of Balanced Diet

  1. It makes us to stay healthy
  2. It helps to prevent malnutrition
  3. It helps to protect the body from diseases.

CLASSWORK

  1. What is food?
  2. State four importance of food
  3. Mention three sources of carbohydrate

ASSIGNMENT

SECTION A

  1. Which of these is not a major function of food? (a) to provide energy (b) to sustain life (c) to make us fairer (d) to make us grow
  2. The following are classes of food except (a) protein (b) vitamins (c) fruits (d) carbohydrates
  3. The diet that contain all the six classes of food in their right proportion is called (a) appetizer (b) balanced diet (c) complete food (d) charismas food
  4. Which of these foot items aids digestion? (a) vegetables (b) fat and oil (c) protein (d) carbohydrate
  5. Which of the following is an arrangement of protein, carbohydrate and vitamin respectively (a) rice, juice and yam (b) milk, garri and palm oil (c) corn, beans and cassava (d) juice, milk and egg

SECTIOIN B

  1. Define balanced diet
  2. State three importance of balanced diet
  3. List the classes of food
  4. State two functions of protein

 

See also

FAMILY HEALTH

PUBERTY

CLASSIFICATION OF NON-LIVING THINGS INTO METALS AND NON-METALS METALS

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS

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