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NOUN, PRONOUN, VERB ADJECTIVE, SPELLING; DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS

Review of Word Class- Parts of Speech

Noun– A noun is a naming word. It is a name of a person, animal, place, thing or and idea. Nouns also cover names like those of institutions, months and days, and abstract ideas. Below are examples of nouns:

Names of people: Uche, Peterson, Adebisi, Falase

Names of places: Beijing, Meiran, Atan Ota, London, Sweden, Canada

Names of things: table, chair, house, lap top, radio etc

Names of Institutions: family, tribe, Christianity, Islam, university etc

Names of months and days: January, February, December, Sunday, Thursday, Friday.

Names of Abstract ideas: beauty, knowledge, emotion, hope, courage, wisdom, empathy etc.

 

FEATURES OF NOUNS

  1. Most nouns form their plurals with ending – ‘s’ or –‘es’: girl – girls, box – boxes, church – churches
  2. Nouns are often used with articles, demonstratives and adjectives, e.g a cup, an hour , a church, that house, black girl, some people.
  • Words that end with the following morphemes are usually often nouns-
  • age– e,g damage, grainage, homage, image, stoppage.
  • al– g arrival, cabbinal, dismissal, mammal, refusal.
  • tion– e.g action,option, association, imagination, admonition, composition.
  • er- e,g adviser, marker, player, teacher, worker
  • ery– machinery, slavery, stationery,
  • titude– e.g servitude, solitude
  • hood– boyhood, girlhood, childhood, womanhood
  • like– childlike,
  • ist– bicyclist, evangelist, motorist, socialist
  • ity- ability brevity equity, impunity
  • ment– arrangement, comment, establishment, government
  • ness– firmess, fairness, laziness,
  • cy– proficiency, ascendancy, profligacy, legacy, papacy
  • ocracy– democracy, aristocracy, autocracy
  • ism– Zionism, Feudalism, Nazism, Communism
  • ship– scholarship, fellowship, followership, membership
  • ster– gangster, trickster, youngster.

 

Types of Nouns

Proper Nouns: These name a SPECIFIC person, place or thing. Note that the first letter of every proper noun must be written in capital letter regardless of its position in a sentence. E.g  We will travel to Atan-Ota on Monday in the month of August. Proper nouns in the sentence above are: Atan-Ota, Monday and August.

Examples of proper nouns are:

Names of persons– Ade, Obi, Chike,

Names of places/countries– Ottawa in Canada, Oslo-Norway, Oshodi, Ado-Ekiti, Ibadan,

Days of the week and months of the years-January, December, Monday, Friday.

Note: The first letter of the proper noun must be written in capital letter regardless of its position in a sentence.

 

Common Noun: This is the opposite of concrete noun. It is used to name things/person/places which are of general kinds. E.g boy, man, lady, church, mosque, boxes,  table, knives.

 

Concrete Noun: This type of noun can be seen and touched. It is the opposite of abstract noun. Examples of concrete nouns are: books, tables, bag etc.

 

Abstract Nouns: These only exist in names. They can neither be seen nor touched. These can only be felt. E.g hatred, hunger, pains, intelligence, etc

 

Count nouns: These are nouns that can be counted. They usually have singular and plural forms, E.g one man- five men, one orange-several oranges,  a book-five books.

 

Non count or mass nouns: These cannot be counted, and they therefore have only singular form. Sand , soap, rice, homework,  water. Although, they may be counted when converted to units of measurement. E,g, three bags of rice, a bar of soap, some loaves of bread,

 

OTHER types of uncountable nouns are: equipment, jewelry, stationery, information, baggage, luggage, machinery, furniture, baggage, damage, -NOTE- These uncountable nouns must not attract –s- to form their plurals.

See also  SPECIAL PRONOUNS PROBLEMS

E.g All the students were instructed to take their baggage. Not baggages

We have got information/some pieces of information about them. Not ‘an information’ or ‘informations’.

The rain wrecked serious damage to the building. Not ‘damages’. Note –The word damages means a fine imposed on someone. E,g He was ordered by the court of law to pay damages for the damage to his car.

 

Collective nouns: These name a group of people or things. E.g

A troupe of dancers

A troup of soldiers

A band of thieves

A bevy of ladies

A class of students.

 

Possessive noun/ genitive: These indicate possession. E.g Dr Oyeyemi’s car. Mrs. Alalade’s dress. Mr Jayeola’s house, Adebisi’s radio, The Chief Justice’s pen etc.

 

NUMBER: There are two numbers in English- singular and plural. This singular relates to one, while the plural relates to more than one. Countable nouns have both singular and plural forms, uncountable nouns have only the singular form.

REGULAR PLURALS– s and es

SINGULAR PLURAL
School schools
Mat mats
House houses
Box boxes
Bonus bonuses

 

IRREGULAR PLURAL

SINGULAR PLURAL
man men
ox oxen
goose geese
crisis crises
forum fora
formula formulae
symposium symposia
foot feet
parenthesis parenthesis
medium media
index indices/indexes
larva larvae
louse lice
mouse mice
curriculum curricula
axis axes
oasis oases

 

PLURALS IN COMPOUND NOUNS

SINGULAR PLURAL
Head of state heads of states
head of department heads of departments
commander in chief commanders in chief
woman doctor women doctors
secretary general secretaries general
woman occupant women occupants
passer-by passers-by
mother-in-law mothers-in-law
grown-up grown-ups
major general major generals
church-goer church-goers
step-son step-sons

 

ZERO PLURALS

SINGULAR PLURAL
 Gross gross
Deer deer
Sheep sheep
Fish fish or fishes
Series series
Trout trout
Salmon salmon
Person persons or people

 

OTHERS

machinery

information

equipment

advice

jewelry

stationery

furniture

baggage

luggage

 

NOTE: THESE ARE IN PLURAL FORMS

aircraft(pl)   – aircraft

cattle(pl) – cattle

 

THESE NATURALLY ‘GO’ WITH ‘S’ OR ‘ES’

goods

remains (a body of a dead person)

ashes

headquarters

quarters

congratulations

manners

surroundings

wages

arms

works – (Public works such as road construction)

MORE ON REVIEW OF PARTS OF SPEECH

PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

Pronouns- Pronouns are words which are used to replace nouns in a sentence. They are mostly used in order to avoid unnecessary repetition of nouns in a sentence.  Both nouns and pronouns are used interchangeably in a sentence, therefore they both perform the same function. Examples are: he, they, we etc.

 

TYPES OF PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns: Examples I, we, they , us etc.

Possessive pronouns: yours, his, hers, theirs, its, yours etc.

Demonstrative pronouns: this that these those.

Interrogative pronouns: who which, whom, whose, etc.

Reflexive pronouns: myself, themselves, yourselves/yourself, ourselves, oneself etc.

Reciprocal pronouns: each other and one another.

Relative pronoun: which, whom, whose, who, that etc.

Indefinite pronouns: someone, somebody, anything, anyone, everything, everyone, nobody, nothing etc.

 

ADJECTIVES

These are words that describe or qualify nouns. Adjectives are said to perform attributive functions when they are placed before noun. E.g, A red shirt, a gentle lady.

However, an adjective performs a predicative function if it is placed after a link verb. E.g the shirt is red,   the lady is gentle.

 

Kind of Adjectives

Adjectives of Colour: red, green, black – a red shirt, a green basket

Adjectives of Size – e.g big , small, long

Adjectives of Age – old young

Adjectives of Shape – rectangular, circular, round, spherical

Adjectives of Origin – Nigerian, Ghanaian, Canadian

Adjectives of Number– one , two, three, twenty

Demonstrative Adjectives – this, these, that, those

Possessive Adjectives – your, my, her, their

Distributive Adjectives – each, some, every , any

 

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES

– cal     – grammatical, classical,

– ic     – authentic historic, workaholic

See also  INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

– eous advantageous

– ious– melodious, odious, copious, superstitious

– uous   – promiscuous, continuous, conspicuous

ive    – meditative, sedative, curative

– able   – edible, curable, sensible, marketable

– al   – illegal, regal, digital, rural, brutal

– ial  – social, crucial, essential, commercial

 

VERB

A verb expresses action and a state of being. Examples of verbs are sing, dance, jump, is, are, am, etc.

 

TYPES OF VERBS

Lexical Verb: This type of verb expresses action. It can stand on its own without depending on other type of verb. Another name for lexical verb is ‘main verb’. Examples are: speak, pray, write etc.

Auxiliary verbs: There are two types of auxiliary verbs. Those that are not capable of independent existence, and those that can stand on their own while they express a state. Those that can stand on their own and function like main verbs are called PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBS- E.g  be, am, is , are, was, were, being, been. While those that can stand on their own are called MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS-E.g can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would. Others are ought to, dare, need.

 

Finite and Non-Finite Verbs

Finite verb agrees with the subject in terms of person, tense and number. E.g She works hard – Present tense.   She worked hard- Past tense.

Olu speaks good English Language- Singular subject + singular verb

Olu and Bola speak good English Language- Plural subject + plural verb.

 

Non-Finite Verbs– They do not agree with the subject in terms of person, number and tense. They belong to the following group. Infinitive- ‘to work’, ‘to eat’, ‘to dance’. They usually have –ing- ending. E.g dancing, singing, praying, cooking, etc.

Transitive Verb: This type of verb receives object. E.g He killed a snake.[ a snake is the dirtect object of the verb killed].

Intransitive Verb: This type of verb does not require an object. E.g She died, They cooked, We prayed.

 

C: Spelling: Doubling of Consonants. Rules of Spelling

Words of one syllable with one vowel and a consonant at the end double the consonant before adding suffixes beginning with a vowel.

Examples:

big –bigger

bat –batting

drop –dropped

drum –drummer

 

When the vowel is doubled (o,a) ,do not double the consonant.

Examples:

boat – boating

boil – boiled

cheap –cheapest

sweet – sweeter

Exception: wool – woollen

 

Words of more than one syllable (ad/mit) –i-vowel, t-consonant

Double the final consonant when the accent is on the last syllable:

Examples:

admit –admittance

begin –beginning

forget –forgetting

occur –occurrence

 

Words of more than one syllable not accented on the last syllable.

Do not double the consonant if you add an ending that begins with a vowel

Examples

enter – entering

happen –happened

inhabit – inhabitant

refer – reference

 

Note – A final “p” is doubled

Examples:

Handicap –Handicapped

Kidnap –kidnapped

Worship – Worshipped

Exception : Develop – Developed

 

In words ending with “c” add “k” before the suffix

Examples:

frolic  – frolicked

mimic – mimicked

panic – panicky

 

Evaluation

Write five words where consonants are doubled.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION

Give the correct spelling for following words: libary, envinronment, milenium, writting, maneuver, continious, optamologist, neccessary, duely.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

What are monophthongs?

State at least four types of essay and define them.

 

See also

PHRASAL VERB

LETTER WRITING

WRITING A PLAY OR POEM

SYLLABLE

COMPREHENSION

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