PROBLEMS OF NON-ALIGNMENT
- No Charter : Non-align movement have not enjoyed the respect an organization of its standard and status deserves because it has no charter, permanent executive body, Secretary General and other institutions of a well established international body.
- No Military set up: As a result of its military and economic importance, Non-aligned movement lacks the instrument of coercion to compel obedience to its resolutions.
- Poverty: Majority if not all members of the movement are poor. Being a member of poverty stricken countries, Non-aligned movement has become toil of the World powers politics.
- Failure to Remain Neutral: Non-aligned movement supposed to be a neutral body, but this body has not been able to achieve or maintain genuine neutrality. This has led to the withdrawal of some members of the movement like Burma and Libya.
- Differences in Ideological Stance: Non-aligned movement is a bundle of contradiction in the sense that some members are for Capitalism and others for Socialism. This has really affected the movement’s aims and objectives.
- The control of I.M.F. and World Bank: These two international banks are being controlled by developed countries and as such, is affecting the policy of Non-alignment. Most of the members of Non-aligned movement depend on I.M.F and World Bank loans to raise their economy, which means they should be ready to obey their conditions.
- Different Cultural Background: Non-aligned movement is a composition of a vast number of nations with different political system, diverse views and aspiration which give rise to different/. expectations from the problems that face international body.
- Absence of a leader: There is no acceptable leadership in the movement, for example U.S.A leads the NATO Pact, Russia leads the WARSAW Pac, but Non-aligned movement has no clear leadership.
- Finally, the greatest problem of the Non-aligned movement (N.A.M.) has been the inability to successfully mediate between members that are quarreling.
- Poverty is the major problem of Non-aligned movement, explain.
- How is the control of I.M.F and World Bank a problem to Non-aligned movement?
FACTORS THAT STIMULATED THE FORMATION OF NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
The following factors or events contributed to the formation of Non-aligned movement;
- International Groupings: The formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) by Capitalist countries and the formation of WARSAW Pact by socialist countries in 1949 and 1955 respectively.
- Arms Race: The competitive accumulation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction by the World big powers.
- Bi-Polarization of the World: The opposition of bi-polarization of the World by Nehru of India and Tito of Yugoslavia
- The Aspiration and Desire of Independence States: The desire of the newly independent countries to pursue their political, economic and social development without external interference from either the West or the East.
- Globalization: The wish of these newly independent countries to participate in the making of global decisions affecting their future without having anything to do with the super powers.
- The visit of late President Tito of Yugoslavia to India in 1954 followed by a meeting held between Tito and Nehru in New Delhi.
- The Independence of India in 1947; this development encourages territories struggling for self rule, especially in Africa, Asia and so on.
- What is Arm Race? How has it stimulated the formation of Non-alignment?
- What is the full meaning of NATO?
NIGERIA AND NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT
REASONS WHY NIGERIA ADOPTED THE PRINCIPLE
Nigeria joined the Non-aligned movement in Cairo in 1964. The following reasons were given for adopting the principle.
- To interact and cooperate freely; it was adopted by Nigeria so as to cooperate and interact freely with any nation within the comity of nations.
- It was also adopted in order to allow Nigeria to pursue her economic and policies without dictation or interference from either the East or West.
- The Mouthpiece of Africa: It was adopted as a policy so that Nigeria would be able to concentrate on issues affecting Africa, since Nigeria regard itself as the mouthpiece of Africa on international issues. The recognition of M.P.L.A in Angolan crisis, the nationalization of BP now AP and Baclays Bank now Union Bank, are examples.
- Sovereignty: It was adopted as a policy so as to guide the sovereignty of Nigeria.
- It was adopted as a policy in order to give leaders a free hand in putting the interest of the country above any other considerations in foreign policy decision.
- Why did Nigeria adopt the policy of Non-alignment?
- What is the relevance of nationalization of BP and Barclays Bank to Nigeria’s Non-align movement?
- Explain 4 factors that stimulated the formation of Non-alignment.
- Ideological difference is one of the problems facing Non-aligned movement; discuss
- All the following are problems of Non-alignment except (a) independence (b) poverty (c) no military set up
- Nigeria’s Non-aligned policy means that she will (a) relate only with member countries (b) have nothing to do with the super powers (c) not take side on international issues based on ideological consideration.
- One of the underlying principles of Nigeria’s foreign policy is (a) non-commitment towards African unity (b) respect for sovereign equality of all states (c) interference in the internal affairs of other countries.
- The foreign policy thrust of the Babangida regime was (a) economic diplomacy (b) African interest (c) military aggression
- Nigeria’s relations with other countries are underscored by its policy of (a) peaceful co-existence (b) Afro centrism (c) political diplomacy.
- Nigeria has not been able to fully maintain its principle of non-alignment; give reasons for it.
- Mention 6 names of countries that are members of non-align movement.