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catering craft practiceS

These are beverages that do not contain alcohol. e.g,  tea, coffee, juices, squashes, syrup, aerated water, natural spring water or mineral water, zobo, ginger drinks, lemonade drink, orange drinks, pineapple drinks, etc.

                  CLASSIFICATION OF NON              ALCOHOLIC DRINK

  1. Water is essential to human survival. It must be potable and served hygienically.
  2. Refreshing drinks: It includes coke, squashes, syrup, soda, tonic water, etc.
  3. Stimulants are tea and coffee.
  4. Nourishing drinks: It includes Ovaltine, Bournvita, Horlicks, etc.


it is an evergreen plant of the camellia family containing caffeine, volatile oil and tannin. It is prepared by infusion for a shot time and taken as a stimulant drink or beverages e.g. there are three main types of tea which are: Black tea, Green tea and Oolong tea.

Preparation of Tea

Pre-heat a clean tea pot by pouring boiling water into it and allowing it to stand for ten minutes.

Empty the tea pot.

Put the tea bag or loosen tea leaves or sachet into the hot teapot.

Use freshly boiled water, pour boiling water over it.

Pour out the tea after infusion.


Coffee is produced from the coffee tree and it’s grown and exported from regions such as South America, India, Middle East.

                            Types of Coffee

  1. Instant Coffee: It is either powder or freeze-dried and it’s the most popular because it can be made by just adding hot water.
  2. Turkish Coffee: It’s made by the common method of making coffee, i.e., boiling water and adding a teaspoon of coffee powder and drinking it with or without milk or sugar.
  3. Espresso Coffee: It is made by infusing steam, milk and water in an espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served. Sugar is added to taste.
  4. Cappuccino: It’s the same espresso coffee with a sprinkle of cinnamon powder on top.

                          Characteristics of a Good Coffee

  1. It should have good flavor.
  2. Good aroma.
  3. Good colour when milk is added.
  4. Good taste.

                      Reasons for Bad Coffee

Weak Coffee

  1. Water hasn’t reached boiling point.
  2. Insufficient coffee used.
  3. Infusion time too short.
  4. Stale or old coffee.

Bitter Coffee

  1. Too much coffee used.
  2. Infusion time too short.
  3. Coffee not roasted correctly
  4. Infusion at a high temperature.

Stale or Lifeless Coffee

  1. Coffee reheated.
  2. Water not fresh.
  3. Dirty equipment.
  4. Coffee left too long before use.



  1. Dissolving method
  2. Percolation method.
  3. Filtration methods.
  4. Vacuum infusion.
  5. Jug method.
  6. Espresso method.
  7. Still set method.


  1. Mention four non alcoholic beverages.
  2. State two characteristics of a good coffee.
  3. Mention five methods of making coffee and explain any two.



Squashes are concentrated fruit essences sweetened with sugar syrup. They are not carbonated. It may be served on its own or diluted with water, soda water or lemonade. Squashes are also used to mix spirits in cocktails e.g., orange squash, lemon squash, grape fruit squash, etc. squashes can either be served in the bar or in the lounge.



Juices are non- alcoholic drinks taking for refreshing the body. They are made from fruits e.g. orange juice, pineapple juice, grape juice, etc.


CEREAL DRINKS: Kunu is a local drink made from:-

  • Millet (gero) =2 cups
  • Fresh ginger or dry cloves
  • African black pepper
  • Chilly pepper
  • Sugar to taste
  • Enough water



  1. Soak the millet overnight
  2. Grind it together with the ginger, chilly pepper and African black pepper.
  3. Sieve with a fine sieve
  4. Allow to settle
  5. Divide into equal parts, put three parts together and add little cold water
  6. Boil water and pour on the three parts and allow to cool completely
  7. Add the uncooked part kept; mix well with the three parts cooked and add water to form a drink to your taste, add sugar and mix thoroughly.


  1. Differentiate between a squash and a juice.
  2. Explain how to prepare zobo drink.



Syrups concentrated, sweets and fruit flavouring used as a base for cocktail. They are also used to flavor cold milk drinks like milk shakes. Examples of syrups includes:-

Black currant syrup (cassis)

Cherry syrup (cerise)

Lemon syrup (citronelle)

Raspberry syrups (framboise)

White sugar syrup (gomme)

Pomegranate syrup (grenadine)

Almond syrup (orgeat)



These beverages are charged or regenerated with carbonic gas. Artificial aerated waters are by far the most commonly used. The flavouring found in aerated water is obtained from various essences and are either bottled or canned. Examples are:-

(i) Tonic water: This a colourless sweetened water with an injection of quinine taken alone or mixed with alcoholic spirits..

(ii) Dry ginger: This is golden stew coloured with ginger flavour.

(iii) Bitter lemon: This is pale, cloudy yellow coloured with a sharp lemon flavour.

(iv) Coca-Cola: This is dark in colour and sugary.

(v) Soda water: It a purified carbonated water.

Aerated water can be served on their own or as an accompaniment.



This is obtained from natural springs in the ground or from the rock. The water is sparkling. e.g. Malvern, Buxton, Table waters, Alkaline waters, etc. Spring water can be served chilled as drinking water or can be mixed with alcohol to form an appetizing drink.



They are used as aperitif or flavoured drinks. e.g. orange bitters, peach bitter, campari, etc.

  1. Campari: This is a pink bittersweet Italian aperitif that has a slight flavour of orange peels and quinine. It is usually served in an 18.93cl Paris goblet or high ball glass.
  2. Angostura bitters: This is brownish red in colour; it is used in the preparation of pink gin and cocktails.

BYRD: It has a base of red wine and it is flavoured with quinine and herbs   and fortified with brandy.

iii. Underberg: It’s a German bitters that look and almost taste like iodine; it may be sold as a pick me up with soda.


  1. Define beverages
  2. Classify beverages and give an example each
  3. State five personnel in the food and beverage sector and state two major function each,
  4. Define vending service
  5. Explain two ways meat can be tenderized.


  1. Reading assignment: Read more on alcoholic beverages. Ref book; catering craft practice for senior secondary schools by Aminu Barikis (pages 30-43)
  2. (Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council Pages 174-177).


  1. The simplest and cheapest drink is A. soft drink B. water C. soda water D. wine.
  2. Beverages are classified into A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8.
  3. Ciders, beers, gins are examples of —– drinks A. fruit B. cocktail C. liqueur D. alcoholic
  4. Sherry, Malaga, Masala are example of ——- wine A. fortified B. spirits C. beers D. cocktails’
  5. Coffee is produced from the—- of a coffee tree A. fruit B. flower C. beans D. root.


  1. Mention the faults in wine production.

2a. Explain any two non alcoholic drinks

2b. Mention the steps in wine production and explain.

See also







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