National symbols are marks, signs and objects for which the country is known/recognized. Examples of these natural symbols are the constitution, map pledge, Anthem, flag, coat of arms, currency and passports.

(a) The constitution: is a body of rule and regulations which is used to govern a state or country. Nigeria is presently operating the 1999 constitution. It is a federal constitution. It gives powers and guides all the various institutions of government. Hence, it also contains how the president, governors and local government chairmen are chosen, their functions and powers and how they can be removed from office.

(b) The map: represents the location of the country, the various states with the federation and other physical features such as hills, rivers, mountain and so on. Nigeria contains 36 states and the federal capital territory Abuja. It is divided into these unequal parts by rivers Niger and Benue.

(c) The National Anthem and the Pledge: they represent the nation’s virtues, values and the call for national patriotism. There is also a prayer in it, which is a request to God to guide our leaders’ right. The ild anthem before independence was composed by Miss L.J Williams, composed into song by miss F Benda.

However, the new national anthem written by Mr. Emmanuel Odiase (ASP) and composed into song by Prof. Akin Bula in 1998 during the Obasanjo era.

(d) The Flag is divided into three equal parts, the green stands for the rich (soil) agriculture while the white stands for peace and unity of the country. The national flag is designed by Mr. Taiwo Akinkunmi.

(e) The Coat of Arms: It is also called Armorial Bearing. The coat of arms has a black shield which shows that it has fertile soil. The two silver bends look like letter “y” which represent rivers Niger and Benue. The eagle on top stands for strength and the two stallions (horses) by the sides stands for dignity. The motto of the country is unity and faith, peace and progress.

The coat of arm was adopted in the country in 1960.

(f) The Nigerian Currency: They are in different units called kobo (lower) and Naira (higher) denominations.

They bear different symbols/pictures of Nigerians and their cultural heritage (e.g. N50 – Wazobia)

(g) The National Passport: This include all the particulars of an individual as a citizen of Nigeria. They are often used for trips abroad and for easy identification. They are issued by the Nigeria Diplomatic Consulate Office (abroad) and it can be withdrawn for any reason.



  • What is national symbol?

Mention five (5) national symbols.

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