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MONOSACCHARIDES

MONOSACCHARIDES

  • These are simple sugars
  • The carbon atoms in these sugars form a chain to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached
  • Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of carbon atoms they possess
  • The most common monosaccharides are:
  • Glucose – found free in fruits and vegetables
  • Fructose – found free in fruits and in bee honey
  • Galactose – found combined in milk sugar
  • The general formula for these monosaccharides is (CH2O)n where n is 6
  • They have the same number of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen molecules i.e C6H12O6

 

Properties of Monosaccharides

  • They are soluble in water
  • They are crystallisable
  • They are sweet
  • The are all reducing sugars
  • This is because they reduce blue copper (II) sulphate solution when heated to copper oxide which is red in colour and insoluble

 

Functions of Monosaccharides

  • They are oxidised in the cells to produce energy during respiration
  • Formation of important biological molecules e.g. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • Some monosaccharides are important metabolic intermediates e.g. in photosynthesis and in respiration
  • Monosaccharides are the units from which other more complex sugars are formed through condensation

 

Also See:

PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

NUTRITION IN PLANTS

BIOLOGY PRACTICAL

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

WATER RELATIONS IN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS

 

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