Business Studies


Business studies


A memorandum or memo is an internal communication within an organization. Such written communication between the personnel and accounts departments or between the marketing and accounts departments are examples of memo. A memorandum is also shortened as a memo. Because a memo is between staff in the same organization, it does not have:

  1. Address
  2. Salutation such as Dear Sir, Dear Madam, etc
  3. No complimentary close e.g. yours faithfully, Yours truly, etc.



The following is an example of a memo:-



FROM: Director                              To: All Teacher

Ref: BO/OA                          Date: 24 Aug. 2009



This is to inform you that there will be an in-service training today after the school hours in the female Sandra hall



Johnson E. (MEd)


A personal letter, also known as a private letter, is a written communication from someone to a friend, parent, uncle etc. But when it is from someone to a firm it is regarded as an official letter because the address, language, the salutation and complimentary close of such a letter will be official or formal.

A personal letter has the following parts:

(i) Writer’s address, written on the right-hand corner

(ii) Date; written below the writer’s address;

(iii) Salutation, given on the left margin

(iv) Body of the letter;

(v) Complimentary close

(vi) Name of the writer



When a business letter is to be sent to the addressee, it is usual to enclose it in an envelope.

In order to type an address on an envelope proceeds as follows:

  1. Select an envelope large enough to contain the letter and the enclosure, if any.
  2. Type the name and address parallel to the long side of the envelope
  3. The address should be started stightly above the middle of the envelope, horizontally and vertically,
  4. Type the envelope in single or double line spacing Single spacing for small envelopes and double for large envelopes. Either the blocked or indented style can be used.


Acknowledgement of letters, orders, etc is sometimes sent to customers on postcards. Postcards are never enclosed in envelopes as they contain nothing of secret or personal nature. One side of the postcard contains the name and address of the firm sending it, the reference, date and the message. A postcard, like the memo, does not contain salutation and complimentary close. Both sides of the postcard can be used as follows:-

  1. Leave 1 inch (ie 25mm) top margin and type in single line spacing between paragraphs
  2. Use ½ inch (13 mm) left and right margin.
  3. On the other side of the post card the addressee’s and addresser’s are typed in exactly the same way as addressed and typed on ordinary envelopes.

Author: Mr. Nicholas Osime

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