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Literature In English (All Classes)

Literature in English

Introduction to Literature

Literature is the art of composition in prose and verse literature mirrors life and the society. There are three (3) genres of literature which are: Drama (b) Prose (c) Poetry.   The purpose of Literature Literature seeks to correct the vice in the society Literature preserves the culture and tradition of the individual and society. Literature seeks to develop the human mind.   Function of literature It entertains and informs us It educates our mind to know about other people’s culture and tradition. It helps in development and enlightenment It give us a unique identity It makes the economy to grow and develop. It enriches our minds. It helps in making us creative and inventive with words. Types of literature Oral literature: this is a type of literature that has been handed down by word of mouth-they are now documented and modified for better understanding Historic literature: this is a… Read More »Introduction to Literature

Literature in English

FEATURES OF FOLKTALES

Folktales are stories that were made up long ago. These stories were made up to teach people how to live good lives and how to live wisely. The stories are quite funny, amusing, entertaining and exciting. Many of them teaches moral lessons. Folk tales were told through the world. So we have folk tales from Nigeria, Africa, China etc. human and animalistic image can be use to represent character.   Assignment Write a short folk tale story example can be seen in a Reference: New  focus for junior secondary school 2 pg 116. WEEK FOUR (4) SPEECH WORK: The /əʊ/ sound e.g. /go, blow, mow, know/ At the production of /əʊ/, the tongue glide start at a point between the centre and the back with a closing movement of the lower jaw. The gradual tongue glide towards /ʊ/ agrees with the closing movement of the jaw. The shape of the… Read More »FEATURES OF FOLKTALES

English Language

MODAL FORMS OF VERB

What are modal verbs? Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verb s, modal auxiliaries ) are special verbs which behave irregularly in English. They are different from normal verbs like “work, play visit…” They give additional information about the function of the main verb that follows it. They have a great variety of communicative functions .   Here are some characteristics of modal verbs: They never change their form. You can’t add “s”, “ed”, “ing”… They are always followed by an infinitive without “to” (e.i. the bare infinitive.) They are used to indicate modality allow speakers to express certainty, possibility, willingness, obligation, necessity, ability List of modal verbs:  can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must .The verbs or expressions dare , ought to, had better , and need not behave like modal auxiliaries to a large extent and may be added to the above list   Use… Read More »MODAL FORMS OF VERB

Literature in English

Rhyme Scheme

Rhyme Scheme Definition of Rhyme Scheme Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyme that comes at the end of each verse or line in poetry. In other words, it is the structure of end words of a verse or line that a poet needs to create when writing a poem. Many poems are written in free verse style . Some other poems follow non-rhyming structures, paying attention only to the number of syllables. The Japanese genre of Haiku is a case in point. Thus, it shows that the poets write poems in a specific type of rhyme scheme or rhyming pattern. There are several types of rhyme schemes as given below. Types of Rhyme Scheme There are a number of rhyme schemes used in poetry; some of the most popular of which include: Alternate rhyme : It is also known as ABAB rhyme scheme, it rhymes as “ABAB CDCD EFEF… Read More »Rhyme Scheme

English Language

Fiction and non-fiction

Fiction vs Non fiction Fiction is not true and non-fiction is true. This is the simplest way of defining fiction and non-fiction. Non-fiction involves real things, real people, real events, real places and real writing. However, fiction is just imaginary things, imaginary people, imaginary events, imaginary places and imaginary writing. While a writer based on his imagination creates Fiction, non- fiction is not created but only written based on facts.   While Non-fiction focuses on ideas or events that actually took place, fiction tends to be focusing on imaginary ideas and events. Coming to the characters, non-fiction deals with real people and fiction only creates characters.   If something is said to have happened in real places, whether in the past or present, then it is non-fiction. But if something is said to have taken place in a fake place, then it is fiction. A big difference is that fictions… Read More »Fiction and non-fiction

Literature in English

ORAL TRADITION OF LITERATURE

This is the passing on from one generation (and/or Locality) to another of songs, charts, proverbs and other version compositions within and between non-literate cultures; or the accumulated stock of works thus transmitted by word of mouth. Ballade, Folktales, and the works emerging from an oral tradition will often be found in several different versions, because each performance is a fresh improvisation based around a ‘core’ of narrative incidents and dramatic phrases. The state of dependence on the spoken word in and cultures is known as Orality. Folklore:Is a dictations stay embodying beliefs, traditions, superstitions, motions, customs, prejudices and observance of a people. Folklore is composed of oral traditions transmitted by word of mouth. The story teller as a creative writer paints a picture of a time. Life situation and makes use of elements of drama viz. Characterization, setting, language, costumes and spectacle (side attractions; the visual effect of drama).… Read More »ORAL TRADITION OF LITERATURE

Literature in English

DRAMA

WHAT IS DRAMA Drama is defined as a penetration of life through artificial means. It is an imitation of an action. It is a type of story that exists mainly in action and performed on the stage by different characters. The origins of Drama are likely to be found in early religions ceremonies and festivals. This aspect of literature entertains, teaches moral lessons and helps to bring into focus life-in-action outside our immediate environment. The characters in a play are called actors.   Features of Drama Local Colour:This is the feature of drama which emphasizes the customs, norms, values and setting of the play. Dialogue:This reveals the minds of the characters, it has action and also is designed for theatre, it must have actors who could impersonate characters and perform the action Flash back:This is a device where a scene recalls an event in the past Protagonist:This is the main… Read More »DRAMA

Literature in English

DIFFERENT FORMS OF POETRY AND TYPES OF POETRY

Ballad: The word, ballad is derived from a Latin word “ballare” meaning “to dance”. It comprises words which are out of current use. The poem derived from village festivals and are not often written but handed down orally from generation to generation. The themes are based on popular stories or legends and great village heroes. We have two(2) types of ballad and they are (1) Traditional ballad: Which exists mainly if stories told by word of mouth (II) Literacy ballad: Which is a written type e.g. “The rhyme of the Ancient Mariner” written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge Elegy/ Dirge: This developed from Greek word “elegos” meaning, a lament, a song of mourning, a sorrowful event like the death of a bossom friend. E.g. “Lycida” by Milton or “In memoriam” by Tennyson. Elegy or dirge may also bbe an expression of regret for the past or pessimistic fears for the future,… Read More »DIFFERENT FORMS OF POETRY AND TYPES OF POETRY

Literature in English

POETRY

WHAT IS POETRY? Poetry is a branch of Literature and it is a collection of poems. What is a poem? Poem is a feeling expressed in imaginative language and in deep thought. The person that writes poem is a Poet while the female counterpart is a Poetess. According to wordsworth, poetry is defined as an overflow of spontaneous emotions recaptured in tranquility. Poetry is about beauty, passion, rhythm and grace therein in any emotional expression. Poetry must have rhythmic pattern because it is a rhythmic grace present in all creation, inspired, the poet conceptualizes or imagines an idea, based on an object, an incident an aspect of it. He uses words, phrases, poetic devices like figures of speech and imageries to concretize this idea in a poem. He arranges the word in a systematic pattern to achieve rhythm, harmony, symmetry and grace. With these, he/she    creates a vivid picture of        … Read More »POETRY

Literature in English

PROSE

WHAT IS PROSE? The third genie of Literature is Prose. Prose which is a literacy piece expressed in ordinary and straight forward language other than in Verse. A writer of Prose is known as PROSE MAN or PROSAIST. The chief character in prose or any literacy piece is known as AGONIST. If any literacy work is short, it is known as MARCEAU. And if the literacy piece is geared towards securing the basic necessaries of life e.g Food and Cloth, it is known as POT BOILER. And is a literacy piece is a short pointing out morals, it is called EXEMPLUM. But if the story is on grotesque (strange) Phenomenon  or incredible situations, it is known as TALL STORY or FAIRY TALE. And if a prose man uses a technique to describe events that are yet to take place in the story, the device is known generally in the literacy… Read More »PROSE

Literature in English

ELEMENT OF PROSE

Plot:The plot usually refers to the sequence of events and happening that make up a story. There is usually a pattern, unintended or intentional, that threads the plot together. The plot basically refers to the main outcome and order of story. There is another view of plot in literature as well; it refers to the conflict or clash occurring as a part of the story. The conflict usually follows 3 regular formats which are: Characters in conflict with one another Characters in conflict with their surroundings Characters in conflict with themselves Setting:This is an element of prose narrative. The word “setting” is used to identify and establish the time, place, and mood of the events of the story. It basically helps in establishing where and when and under what circumstances the story is taking place. Example:In the first installment of the Harry Potter series, a large part of the book… Read More »ELEMENT OF PROSE

Literature in English

FICTION AND NON-FICTION

What is Friction? This is the general term for invented stories, now usually applied to novels, short stories, novellus, romances, fabled and other narrative works in prose, even though most plays and narrative poems are also fictional. Example of Friction Fable:Fable is a brief tale in verse or prose that conveys a moral lesson, usually by going human speech and manners to animals and inanimate things e.g George or well’s Animal Farm (1945), Thurber Fable of our Time (1940). Allegory:Allegory is a story or visual image with a second district meaning, partially hidden behind its literal or The Pigrim’s Progress (1678) visible meaning. e.g John Bunjam Note that the principal technique of allegory is Personification, whereby abstract qualities are given human shape as in public status of liberty or Justice. Parables:Parables is a brief tale intended to be understood as an allegory illustrating some lesson or moral. Remember that Jesus… Read More »FICTION AND NON-FICTION

Literature in English

GENRE OF LITERATURE – PROSE, POETRY AND DRAMA

Literature in this sense is generally grouped under three main genres: poetry, prose, and drama. Each of these genre has certain features that make it distinctive from others; and it is how these features are deployed by the muter that attracts the attention of the reader in his or her appreciation of the work.   What is Prose? Prose is used to describe all discourses written or spoken, which are not patterned into metric forms. Some regard prose as the language of everyday speech and writing. Fictional writing are generally described as prose because they deal with narrative experience that are invented or contrived.   Characteristics of Prose The following are the features of prose: Straightforward ordinary language Usually in complete sentences Usually divided into paragraphs A prose does not usually have a regular rhythmic pattern The use of narrative technique   The Elements of Prose Fiction Theme:The theme is… Read More »GENRE OF LITERATURE – PROSE, POETRY AND DRAMA

Literature in English

Introduction to the study of Literature-In-English

In general Literature means “Written language” – everything that is “written” and this includes texts produced in disciplines such as Law, Science, Sports, Religion, History, Economics, Technology e.t.c.   What is literature as a subject of study? Literature is a creative or imaginative work of art that is produced by a novelist, poet, or playwright. It minors the society.   English Literature and Literature-In-English English Literature is generally seen as beginning with the epic poem Beowulf that dates from between the 8th to the 11th centuries the most famous work in Old English, which has achieved national epic status in England, despite being Scandinavia. On the other hand, Literature In English focuses on literary works from other British colonies, including the U.S.   Reasons for the study of Literature (Aims and Objective) We can vicariously travel to other places, even outer space We can learn from the profound thinkers of… Read More »Introduction to the study of Literature-In-English

Literature in English

THE SCHOOL BOY: WILLIAM BLAKE

‘The School Boy’ is a Romantic poem. It helps to foreground the focus of attention of the poet. The poem is the lamentation of a young boy who is not happy with the restriction placed on him, which has not allowed him to fraternize with nature as he would loved. The regimentation of  this child’s life by a host of parental and social rules and regulations leads to the child becoming sad as he longs for freedom to bask in the beauty of summer. For the boy, nature is the only place where he can find  emotional, physical and psychological fulfilment and happiness. He is not happy that he has not been allowed the freedom that is associated with nature. He is not happy with is parents, who want him to go to school. THEMES Education acquired in a natural setting is more fulfilling than formal education in a classroom.… Read More »THE SCHOOL BOY: WILLIAM BLAKE

Literature in English

THE PROUD KING BY WILLIAM MORRIS

’The proud king’ is a poem about the evil inherent in arrogance and pride, which is a thematic preoccupation that is present in many culture around the world. ‘The proud King’ is a long narrative poem, of epic proportion. It has 119 stanzas in all. 117 of these stanzas contain seven lines each with the first line of each stanza indented. However, the last 2 stanzas have nineteen and eleven lines respectively. The rhyme scheme for the seven line stanzas is consistent. The ‘Proud King’ is didactic in nature, as the aim and objective of the poet is to teach certain values and virtues which are essential for the well-being of each individual. It revolves round the relationship between man, represented by king Jovinian and element of the supernatural realm, symbolized by an angel.   THEMES Pride and the vanity of material wealth Supremacy of God. Death is inevitable. Impermanence… Read More »THE PROUD KING BY WILLIAM MORRIS

THE PULLEY: BY GEORGE HERBERT

A clear understanding of the poem requires that reference be made to Pandora’s box of gifts. Closly related to the Pandora’s box myth and also aiding the understanding of The Pully, is the biblical account of the warning given to Adam and Eve by God in the garden of Eden, not to eat a particular kind of fruit out of the abundance of fruit in the garden. But they disobey and this led to their eviction from the garden. Also, the  poem focuses on the relationship between God and man. Herbert uses the metaphor of the pulley to talk about man’s dependence on God and the fact that without God man is nothing. ‘The Pulley’, the first part narrates the creation story, while the second part describe endowment of man with virtues like riches, honour, etc. In the third part, God finds a way to retain man’s interest in Him… Read More »THE PULLEY: BY GEORGE HERBERT

Literature in English

CROSSING THE BAR BY ALFRED LORD TENNYSON

This poem is said to have been written in 1889. The poet, Tennyson, wrote it after a serious illness at sea. No wonder the poem treats death as a main issue. The poem reflects the mind of the poet who is about embarking on a voyage of no return. He is about crossing the bar, the bar that separate  life from death. ‘Crossing the Bar’ has been used metaphorically to represent leaving the word for the great beyond, which in fact must become the lot of all the living. THEMES The following themes are found in the poem; The inevitability of death. Life after death.   POETIC DDEVICES Metaphor: The journey between life and death is compared to crossing the sand bar. Imagery: There are images of ‘the moving tide’; the sunset and the evening star’; twilight and evening bell’. Importantly, the image is created of a man (the poet)… Read More »CROSSING THE BAR BY ALFRED LORD TENNYSON

Literature in English

THE AVIL AND THE HAMMER. KOFI AWONOOR

The poem talks about the experience of the poet on how to cope with modern trends. He found himself struggling for survival between the old and the new order .He believes that in comparison, the experience of the past that is, the old  order, could be more acceptable than the present day ideas. He thus asks for away out from the gods. The African in a colonial situation is akin to a piece of metal which finds itself lodged between ‘the anvil’ and ‘the hammer’. ‘ The anvil’ represent the African tradition while ‘the hammer’ is the foreign culture. Both of them impact on African in the process of forging and transforming him/her into a new being. THEMES A forceful fusion Conflict of the way to go. Nation building Tradition and modernity   See also THE PANIC OF GROWING OLDER BY LENRIE PETER THE DINNING TABLE BY GBANABAM HALLOWELLPiano and… Read More »THE AVIL AND THE HAMMER. KOFI AWONOOR

Literature in English

THE PANIC OF GROWING OLDER BY LENRIE PETER

The poet examines the transitional stages in man’s life. He tries to point out what man feels or knows at the time of his growth till he gets old. Also the poet points out that the fear of growing older is just like an excited state of agitation in life of man. That at every time man thinks of getting older, the fear shows in his face. He points out that there is a period in a man’s life, when he would be full of hopes, aspirations, and excitement for success. At another stage, the excitement will be mixed with anxiety. A particular time will come when man will resign to fate, when there would be nothing to show for all his youthful efforts. All expectations from life would have become nothing. But because it is believe that man is expected to live for seventy years on earth, he may… Read More »THE PANIC OF GROWING OLDER BY LENRIE PETER

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