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JSS 1 Physical And Health Education (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

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JUDO

Judo is a martial art in which two opponents use movement, balance and leverage to gain advantage over each other. It was adopted from a traditional Japanese martial art known as jujutsu. Judo, a combative sport founded by a Japanese Professor Jigoro Kano in 1878.   Judo became an Olympic sport in 1964 when the game was held in Tokyo, Japan. Judo first got official support in Nigeria in 1972 during the preparation for the 22nd All African Games. The Nigeria judo Amateur judo Association (NAJA) was later named Nigeria Judo federation in 1993 and to the international judo federation.                                         BASIC SKILLS OF JUDO The stance The gripping The movement The falling Throws                       EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES Mat (tatami) A belt is worn which indicates the judoka`s standard or rank Judogi (judo suit) Time piece for the officials, for keeping the time Writing materials for the officials… Read More »JUDO

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FIELD EVENTS

Field events are the events which involve the throwing and throwing on the field where the height cleared and distance covered are measure to determine a winner. Field events can be grouped two: THE THROWS: are all the events which involve the throwing of some implements for distance. These implements are called missiles. Examples of throwing events are the followings; Shot put event Discus event Hammer event Javelin event   THE JUMPS: are the events that involve jumping for height over a raised object or jumping for distance from a marked spot on a flat surface into a demarcated pit. Examples of jumping events are the followings; Long jump Triple jump Pole vault High jump   EQUIPMENTS AND FACILITIES FOR JUMPING EVENTS The measuring tape The run-way Red and white flags The landing pits Record sheets and writing materials Step board Cross bar and pegs Pole vault stick Land foam… Read More »FIELD EVENTS

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DOMESTIC ACCIDENT

Domestic or home accidents—these are accidents that occur in the home, surroundings and neighborhood. Most of the accidents at home are in form of cuts, falls, poison, burns, electric shock, scalds, suffocation and dislocation as a result of slippery surfaces.   CAUSES OF DOMESTIC ACCIDENTS Accessibility to sharp instruments like knives, razor blade, cutlass etc. Poorly kept environment Slippery floors Hastiness Congested rooms and poorly arranged places Poor lightening Unguarded fire place Tiredness Poor building and maintenance Use of faulty instruments and equipments   PREVENTION OF DOMESTIC ACCIDEENTS FIRST AID TREATMENT FOR INJURIES First aid treatment for dislocation; Place the injured part in the most comfortable position Apply cold compress (ice packs) Immobilize the injured part by putting bandage on it Seek immediate medical attention Reassure the patient   First aid treatment for sprain: Apply cold compress Rest the affected joint Immobilize the joint to restrict movement Seek medical advice… Read More »DOMESTIC ACCIDENT

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FIRST AID AND SAFETY EDUCATION

First aid: – is the immediate and temporary care given to an accident victim or to a person who suddenly becomes sick until medical attention is provided by a qualified doctor or health practitioner. Safety– simply refers to the measures that are taken in other to be free from all types of danger in the environment Safety Education– is the acquisition of knowledge and skills which are used to create safety skills, prevent accidents and take care of emergencies.                                      ACCIDENT Accident is an unexpected and undesirable event that occurs suddenly resulting in injury, loss or damage to properties and even death. Accident can also be defined as an unintended and unforeseen event, usually resulting in personal injury or property damage.                                TYPES OF ACCIDENTS Home accidents/ domestic School accident Transportation accidents Work place/ industrial accident Sports accident   Home accidents—these are accidents that occur in the home, surroundings… Read More »FIRST AID AND SAFETY EDUCATION

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DANCE

What is Dance? DANCE—dance is the movement of the body and feet to conform with the style of beats, songs and music. The different types of dance activities Pre-colonial or folk/traditional dance- This is dancing to the rhythm of traditional beats or music produced by crude or local instruments like Agogo, Sekere, Igba, Oja, Udu, Goje, Ekwe, Gangan, etc.   Some examples of traditional dances in Nigeria Bata Dance: This dance step belongs to the Yoruba ethnic group. The dancers wear historical costumes (dansiki) and dance to the beat of the bata drum Mkpokiti Atilogwu Dance: These dance steps are peculiar to the ibo ethnic group. They are energetic dance in which the dancers wear brightly coloured constumes. Koroso Dance: This dance step belongs to the hausa ethnic group in Nigeria. Agemo dance Egungun dance Eyo dance Agidigbo Sharo dance Langa dance   Social dance—As the name implies, social dance… Read More »DANCE

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RECREATION, LEISURE AND DANCE

TYPES OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND EXAMPLES RECREATION- is the activity a person participates in voluntarily without monetary gain. It provides pleasure and amusement during the leisure time. LEISURE- Leisure is defined as the free time left over after the day`s work. DANCE-Is the act of moving the body in rhythmic pattern to the tempo of the music or song.           TYPES OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES INDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES- Are those activities that are performed inside the house, hall or generally under a roof EXAMPLES OF INDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES Ludo Table tennis Badminton Dart Scrabble Monopoly Drawing Painting Sewing/ knitting Playing Piano Dancing Chess Ayo Snake and ladders Playing cards Watching television Squash   OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES- are those activities that are performed outside or in the open air. Outdoor recreation centers could be parks, Picnicking, sports field or outside the house within the compound. EXAMPLES OF OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES Running Camping… Read More »RECREATION, LEISURE AND DANCE

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WATER SUPPLY

Water supply-: water supply is the process by which water is provided for some use, e.g. to a home, commercial organization, community endeavors or individuals usually through a system of pumps and pipes. Meaning of water Water is a universal solvent. It is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms held together by covalent bonds. Water is precious to man’s existence as it is needed in every aspects of life. The chemical formula of water is H20. Water is needed by every creature such as human beings, animals and plants. In Nigeria, the ministry of water resources is in-charge of water supply through-out country. The state supply water through water boards or states water corporations Sources of water Natural source of water Artificial source of water example of these include:   Natural source of water Artificial sources of water (I)                 Rain water (i)                 Pipe-borne water (II)               River water… Read More »WATER SUPPLY

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MEANING OF SEWAGE AND REFUSE

Sewage Sewage is the liquid wastes from domestic, industrials and commercial effluents. It is the mixture of waste from human body and used water that is carried out of houses by sewers. It carries bacteria which can cause diseases such as cholera typhoid, dysentery. Sewage disposal- is the way and manner of getting rid of liquid wastes Refuse Refuse can be defined as all solid wastes in the house such as pieces of paper, leaves, garbage, ashes, rubbish and dead animals. It can also be defined as unwanted, discarded, non-liquid materials emanating from various activities of human. Refuse disposal- is the way and manner of getting rid of solid wastes. Refuse should be properly disposed of to prevent the spread of infections and health hazards in the society.               METHOD OF REFUSE DISPOSAL There are many methods of refuse disposal. These are the followings Open dumps: This is the case… Read More »MEANING OF SEWAGE AND REFUSE

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HEALTH DETERMINANTS

What is health? The world health organization (who) defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The definition above reveals that someone may be physically well but emotionally or socially unwell. Determinants of health There are four general determinant of health. These include: Health care service Life style Heredity (human biology) Environment   Health care service This is the prevention, treatment and management of mental, physical and social well-being through the service offered by the medical community and health professionals. Health care service are designed for promotion, curative and palliative interventions, whether direct to individual or the general population.   Life style Life style is the way a person lives his or her life. A lifestyle is a characteristic of behaviors that a person exhibit to oneself or others in a given time. It includes the social… Read More »HEALTH DETERMINANTS

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHILE PERFORMING EXERCISES

Safety precautions simply refers to those necessary things that must be available or put in place in other to prevent injuries while engaging in an exercises Do your warm ups properly before involving in any strenuous exercises Always proceed from simple to complex Have a good knowledge and skills of the exercise you want to perform Concentrate on the performance, so as to avoid being distracted Inspect all apparatus or equipment required for the exercises before use Ensure that you are certified medically fit for the exercise or sport Adequate or proper kitting of players Perform an exercise repeatedly and regularly to get an effective result Ensure there are no harmful objects in the place where the exercise is being done Vary the exercise evenly to develop every muscles of the body.   ASSIGNMENT List three benefits of physical fitness Mention four safety precautions required for doing exercise   See… Read More »SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHILE PERFORMING EXERCISES

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PHYSICAL FITNESS

EXERCISES TO DEVELOP THE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS MUSCLES STRENTH, ENDURANCE AND FLEXIBILITY Some exercises to develop muscle strength include; (A) Muscular strength is the ability of a group of muscles to generate and exert maximum force in a single effort during an activity to a point that no more repetition can be done without rest Bench press Leg press Isometric push-up Isotonic push-up Shoulder press Squatting Climbing Bicep curls   Some exercises to develop muscles endurance Muscles endurance is the ability of the muscles to continue to perform without fatigue. i.e, the test of how long it takes before the muscles get tired. Some exercises that develop muscle endurance Push-ups Sit-ups Chin-ups Running Jogging Swimming Cycling V-sits (C) Flexibility- is the ability to the joints to their full normal range of motion without discomfort or pains Some exercises that develop flexibility include; Sit and reach Stretching Yoga Aerobics… Read More »PHYSICAL FITNESS

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYSICALLY PERSON

A person is said to be physically fit if he or she is healthy and is able to do work and exercise adequately. Someone who is sick, malnourish, disable or overweight cannot be said to be physically fit. Though good health is important to physical fitness, exercises are needed regularly to keep fit The following are the characteristics of a physically fit person Perform his/her daily activities easily without much effort Adopt better to stress and does not get tired easily Has a good posture and firm physique React quickly to emergency situation; Enjoys playing games, sports and other recreational activities Has a  good appetite for food Has a healthy attitude to life Recovers quickly from illness Has a high resistance to diseases and infections Can think independently and constructively Has good judgment, very resourceful, happy and confident. Sleep better and has good mood A physically fit person must be… Read More »CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYSICALLY PERSON

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PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PROGRAMMES

Physical fitness is the ability of an individual to have sufficient energy to perform one`s work effectively without unnecessary fatigue and still have little extra as a to enjoy social activities and cope with emergencies after daily work Physical fitness can be simply defined as the ability of an individual to perform his or her daily work well without feeling too tired and still have reserve energy to do some other activities.   PHYSICAL FITNESS CAN BE GROUPED INTO TWO PARTS Health related components of physical fitness:-They are directly related and affect the health of an individual. They are essential for survival regardless of a person`s sex, age, religion or occupation. These includes Muscular strength Muscular endurance Cardio-vascular-respiratory endurance Flexibility   Performance or Skills related components of physical fitness-They are essential for skills performance, They are regarded as additional to health related components. These are the abilities required by an… Read More »PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PROGRAMMES

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INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

The terms physical education consist of two terms Physical and Education. Physical refers to the outward appearance of an individual in terms of the body composition. It refers to physical make-up or attribute of an individual as regard the trunk, head, hands, legs, height, weight etc. The physical attributes of an individual describe he or she at first appearance. Education can be defined as a process of training and re-training an individual either formally or informally in other to bring about a change in the behavior of the learner. Physical Education can be defined as the process by which the general make-up or well-being of an individual is improve upon through active participation in physical activities, sports and games   Physical Education is the process by which changes in an individual is brought about through movement experiences, it aims not only at physical development but also concerned with education  of… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

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CAUSES OF DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION

Causes of Diseases Diseases are caused by the following factors: Inadequate nutrition Lack of Exercise Dirty environment Use of unsafe water Improper disposal of sewage and refuse Not seeking and getting treatment on time Overcrowding and poor ventilation Bad/poor health habits Ignorance   Preventive Measures against Diseases Diseases can be prevented in the following ways: Adequate nutrition Adequate warm up and Exercise Clean environment Use of safe water Proper disposal of sewage and refuse Seeking and getting treatment on time Avoid Overcrowding and poor ventilation Good hygiene Health education Immunization Vaccination   EVALUATION Identify health habits or practices that could lead to outbreak of diseases in your school community. As a student, how would you prevent outbreak of infectious diseases in your school?   See also DISEASES CAUSED BY PATHOGENS PATHOGENS THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS

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DISEASES CAUSED BY PATHOGENS

DISEASES CAUSED BY PATHOGENS The following are the diseases caused by pathogens: Typhoid Diarrhoea Tuberculosis Syphilis Chicken pox Dysentery Cholera Measles Influenza Mumps Common cold   Effects of Diseases on Athletes’ Performance in Physical Activities Diseases have some negative effects in athletes’ performance in physical activities. The following are some of them: Decreased performance Muscle wasting Impaired motor coordination Circulation deregulation Unexpected death Severe injuries   Common Athletes’ Infection The following are common athletes’ infections: Viral hepatitis Leptospirosis Gastroenteritis Bacterial infections Herpes Myocarditis   EVALUATION What are the effects of disease on athlete’s performance in physical activities? Mention 3 common athletes’ infections.   See also PATHOGENS THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put

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PATHOGENS, DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION

Meaning of Communicable Diseases These are diseases that can be transferred from one person to another. Meaning of Disease A disease is a state in which one departs from normal functioning state of the body and is unwell. Meaning of Pathogens Disease causing organisms are called pathogens, or more commonly as germs, “Most pathogens are microscopic and are referred to as microbes or micro-organisms. Examples are, bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa, parasitic warms. Types of Diseases Air-borne diseases Food borne diseases Insect borne diseases Contagious and sexually transmitted diseases Water-borne diseases   EVALUATION What is disease? Describe pathogens and give examples. List five types of diseases.   See also THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put ATHLETICS: DISCUS

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THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD

Meaning of Food Food is anything we eat whether solid or liquid that nourishes the body. Importance of Food Food is important for the following reasons: Food eliminates hunger It provides energy for various physical activities It enhances growth It is a resistance to disease Food makes one to recover from illness It serves as a source of income It is eaten for the purpose of adequate nutrition Food makes for healthy living   EVALUATION What is food? What are the importance of food?   See also MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put ATHLETICS: DISCUS ATHLETICS: SHOT PUT

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MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD

Meaning of Food Food is any substance which when taken into the body, serves to nourish and build up tissues as well as provide needed energy. Classes of Food There are six classes of food, namely: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats and oil Mineral salts Vitamins Water Classes of Food Sources Functions Carbohydrate yam, garri, cassava, yam flour, maize, wheat, potato Provides the body with energy Proteins meat, beans, fish, soya beans, eggs, peanuts, cheese, chicken. For growth and repair of body tissues. Fats and oils palm oils, groundnuts oil, butter, margarine, sardine, pork, egusi oil, cod liver oil Provides the body with heat and energy for daily activities. Mineral salts milk, meat, liver, cheese, vegetable and sea foods Proper functioning of the body. Water rain, spring, brooks, vegetables, fruits, beverages and tea For easy digestion and maintenance of body fluid. Vitamins liver, eggs, fish, oil, citrus, and tomatoes For protection against… Read More »MEANING AND CLASSES OF FOOD

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MEANING, TYPES OF FOOD AND BASIC FOOD GROUPS

Meaning of Food Food is any substance which when taken into the body of living organism is capable of maintaining growth and development. It regulates the body functions and controls harmful or dangerous substances that might enter into the body. Different Types of Food Rice Eggs Garri Vegetables Semovita Yam Bread Beans Tea Porridge   Basic Food Groups It is necessary to classify food types into groups. There are five groups. Milk and milk producer group Meat group Fruits and vegetable group Bread and cereal group Tuber group   EVALUATION What is food? How many classes of food do we have? List them. Name some foods you know.   See also Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put ATHLETICS: DISCUS ATHLETICS: SHOT PUT BENEFITS OF RECREATION AND DANCE RECREATION

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