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JSS 1 Computer Studies/Information Technology (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

Computer-Studies

IMPORTANCE OF THE COMPUTER AS A TOOL FOR DATA PROCESSING

The Importance of the Computer as a Tool for Data Processing The computer is a very unique electronic device and has certain features and characteristics that distinguish it from other machines. These include: Speed: Computers are very fast; they can perform tens of millions of operations per second. This is necessary for predicting weather forecasts, performing scientific research and even producing thousands of bills for utility companies. Accuracy: Computers are very accurate. Errors only occur if there is an error in hardware, software or data. When errors occur it is usually because of some human error, since computers can only do what they are programmed to do. Storing large amounts of information in a small space: There are many storage media that can be used to store large volumes of data and information. For example, a single CD-ROM disk can save the equivalent of a shelf of books in the… Read More »IMPORTANCE OF THE COMPUTER AS A TOOL FOR DATA PROCESSING

Computer-Studies

DATA PROCESSING

Definition of Data Processing Data processing is the process of producing meaningful information by collecting all items of data together and performing operations on them to extract information. Data processing can also be described as a series of actions or operations that convert or manipulate data into useful information. Data processing involves the systematic recording, calculation, selection and combination of data to obtain facts and disseminate facts in relation to events in our everyday life. The processing of data can either be done manually or with the use of electronic machines. Data processing can involve calculating, sorting, editing etc.   Data Processing Cycle Data processing cycle includes the following: Data Gathering At this stage, data is gathered through various ways such as asking questions observations, reading books, listening and watching electronic media (radio and television). For example, giving a prospective customer a form to fill before opening a bank account… Read More »DATA PROCESSING

Computer-Studies

Generations of Computers

Generations of Computers Generation of computers is the developmental stages that the computer has gone through. There are 5 generations of computers and their accompanying innovations. First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1940 – 1956) First generation computers were those manufactured between 1940s and 1950s. The computers used the stored program concept. First generation computers were associated with the vacuum tubes or valves technology as circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. Characteristics of the First Generation of Computers They were very bulky and heavy. They measured between 50 – 100ft long and about 80ft high. The computers weighed up to 200 tons and occupied 3000 cubic ft. They used vacuum tubes to store and process data. Examples of first generation computers are ENIAC, EDSAC, and UNIVAC. It generates a lot of heat It relies on machine language These computers were limited to solving one problem at a time Problems of First Generation… Read More »Generations of Computers

Computer-Studies

ELECTRONIC COUNTING DEVICES AND MODERN COMPUTER

JOHN VON NEUMANN’S MACHINE In 1945, mathematician John von Neumann undertook a study of computation that demonstrated that a computer could have a simple, fixed structure, yet be able to execute any kind of computation given properly programmed control without the need for hardware modification. Von Neumann contributed a new understanding of how practical fast computers should be organized and built; these ideas, often referred to as the stored-program technique, became fundamental for future generations of high-speed digital computers and were universally adopted. The primary advance was the provision of a special type of machine instruction called conditional control transfer which permitted the program sequence to be interrupted and reinitiated at any point, similar to the system suggested by Babbage for his analytical engine and by storing all instruction programs together with data in the same memory unit, so that, when desired, instructions could be arithmetically modified in the same… Read More »ELECTRONIC COUNTING DEVICES AND MODERN COMPUTER

Computer-Studies

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUNTING DEVICES

Electro-mechanical Counting Devices JOSEPH JACQUARD’S LOOM The Jacquard machine is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade, damask and matelassé. It was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804. The loom was controlled by a chain of cards, a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence. Multiple rows of holes were punched on each card, with one complete card corresponding to one row of the design. The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punch cards to control a sequence of operations. CHARLES BABBAGE’S MACHINES Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath, a mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer. Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex electronic designs, though all… Read More »ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUNTING DEVICES

Computer-Studies

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS

Electro-mechanical Counting Devices These are counting devices that could be operated both electrically and mechanically. Electro-mechanical devices include the following: Speeding Clock Blaise Pascal machine Gottfried Leibniz Machine   SPEEDING CLOCK OR CALCULATING CLOCK In 1623 and 1624, reported his design and construction of what he referred to as an arithmetical instrument that he has invented but which would later be described as a (calculating clock). The machine was designed to assist in all the four basic functions of arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). Amongst its uses, Schickard suggested it would help in the laborious task of calculating astronomical tables.   The machine could add and subtract six-digit numbers, and indicated an overflow of this capacity by ringing a bell. The adding machine in the base was primarily provided to assist in the difficult task of adding or multiplying two multi-digit numbers. To this end an ingenious arrangement of… Read More »HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS

Computer-Studies

MECHANICAL COUNTING AND CALCULATING DEVICES

Mechanical Counting and Calculating Devices As a result of the disadvantages of the early counting devices, more advanced mechanical counting and calculating devices were invented. Some of these devices are; Abacus (Chinese) Napier’s Bone (John Napier) Slide Rule (William Oughtred)   THE ABACUS The Abacus is made up of beads threaded on iron rods. The iron rods are fixed to a rectangular wooden frame. It is used for addition and subtraction only. It could not carry out complex mathematics.  The Abacus was early used for arithmetic tasks, it was developed in China about 5000 years ago. It was successful that its use spread from china to many other countries. NAPIER’S BONE After the Abacus, the next significant development was the Napier’s Bone made by John Napier in the year 1617. John Napier was a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer from Scotland. His most important achievement was the discoverery of logarithms. He also made the… Read More »MECHANICAL COUNTING AND CALCULATING DEVICES

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS: EARLY COUNTING DEVICES Definition and Examples of Early Counting Devices Early counting devices are devices that were used in the early days to perform arithmetic operations such as addition of numbers, subtraction and multiplication. These devices were used for the usual barter trade of the early days. Examples of early counting devices are fingers, toes, stones, sticks, pebbles, cowries among others. The history and development of computer can be traced back to the studies of Mathematics which started with counting. The history of Mathematics is the history of civilization. These has led to various computing inventions in search for a tool that could enable man meet his computational and data processing needs until we have the computer today.   It was in the process of finding solutions to the problem of counting that early counting devices emerged. Examples of fingers and toes method of calculation are seen below; As time went on, fingers and toes method… Read More »HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS

Computer-Studies

MODERN METHODS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION

MODERN METHODS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION With modern inventions in communication, many ancient methods have been replaced with more efficient modern ways of transmitting information. These include the following: Printing Telephone Global Systems for Mobile communication (GSM) Telex Radio Television Facsimile (Fax) Satellite Internet, etc. Printing Information transmission by printing involves the production of information on paper using typewriter or others printing device/machine.   Telephone Telephones allow people voices to be transmitted over a short or long distance, either by cables or by waves. Global System for Mobile-Communications (GSM) GSM phones allow users to utilize one phone and a number or two in many different locations. This enables people to communicate using texts, pictures and voice, distance not being a barrier. Telex A telex machine is used to transmit information that is textual in natural form from one person to another usually over a long distance.   Radio It is used… Read More »MODERN METHODS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION

Computer-Studies

ANCIENT METHODS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION

Oral method This is one of the oldest methods of transmitting information. It is the era of our great grandfathers when information was sent to people only through the use of the mouth. Drum beating Beating the drums was a simple method of information transmission across distances. Explorers, fearfully making their way through a jungle, would hear the drums pick up tempo and volume and that would tell them that they were in enemy territory. However, far from being a source of terror, the drums in the jungles of Africa and Asia were more equivalent of local news. Fire lighting Lighting fire has been used as a method of information transmission since the Trojan War; Bonfires were lit in succession, in a line, on hilltops, to send smoke signals in order to alert one another of an approaching enemy. But such methods were only capable of conveying very limited prearranged… Read More »ANCIENT METHODS OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION

Computer-Studies

INFORMATION TRANSMISSION

Definition of Information This is data already processed into a meaningful form for decision making. Information conveys meaning and is useful to one or more people. Definition of Transmission This is the process of transferring something from one location to another location, from one person to another person or from one device to another device. Definition of Information Transmission Information transmission is the passing on or publishing of information to someone or a group of people in order to get the right responses. Some information when passed on or given requires a feedback while some do not require feedback. For example, information that the principal wants to meet with all JSS 1 students by 12 noon will make the students to go to his office. However, information that reminds students to be in their classes after break period does not mean that the students should go to the principal’s office.… Read More »INFORMATION TRANSMISSION

Computer-Studies

HEALTH CONCERNS OF COMPUTER USE

Users are a key component in any information system. Therefore, protecting users is just as important as protecting hardware, software and data. The widespread use of computers have led to some important health concerns which are; Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) Computer related RSI’s are the largest job related injury and illness in the United States today. These are (i) Tendonitis: inflammation of tendons due to some repeated motion or stress of that tendon. (ii) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is inflammation of the nerve that connects the forearm to the palm of the wrist. Repeated or forceful bending of the wrist can cause CTS. Long term computer work can cause Tendonitis or CTS. Factors that can cause these disorders Prolonged typing Prolonged mouse usage Continual shifting between the mouse and the keyboard Ways to Prevent Repetitive Strain Injury Take frequent breaks during computer sessions to exercise your hands and arms Computer… Read More »HEALTH CONCERNS OF COMPUTER USE

Computer-Studies

ICT AND SOCIETY

Many of us go through our daily routine without noticing how many times we come into contact with computers. Computer technology has become such a part of our daily lives that if it were taken away we would lead radically different lives. Information communication technology involves the use of modern communication channels to convey information. The Global System Mobile – telecommunication (GSM), Facsimile (Fax), computers, television, satellite, communication, cellular networks, internet are among the gadgets used for this. ICT in the Education Industry ICT has really widened the scope of education. Computers are used to aid student learning through Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) and Computer Assisted Learning (CAL). CAI takes the form of: (i) Drills: These allow students to practice concepts through repeated questions. (ii) Tutorials: They are self-instructional programs that guide the student through new materials, but which allow the student to move at his/her own pace. The student… Read More »ICT AND SOCIETY

Computer-Studies

ICT APPLICATION IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Meaning of ICT ICT is an acronym which stands for Information and Communication Technology. It can be described as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store and manage information. These technologies include; (i) Computer (ii) Internet (iii) Broadcasting technologies (radio and television) (iv) Telephone   Uses of ICT in Communication (i) ICT is used to send information across to people using the electronic-mail (e-mail) through the internet. (ii) Many people use the GSM (mobile phone) to communicate. (iii) Audio and Video conferencing is also made possible through the internet. With video conferencing, people at various distant locations can discuss on different topics. Each of these people makes their contributions to the topic under discussion. (iv) Chatting and instant messaging   Uses of ICT in Timing and Control Many of the devices that are used in everyday life are controlled by small… Read More »ICT APPLICATION IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Computer-Studies

COMPUTER LABORATORY RULES AND REGULATIONS

Rules and Regulations of the Computer Laboratory The following are the rules and regulations of the computer laboratory: Computer room should be kept tidy always by regular cleaning Do not remove or load any software into the computer The security should be very tight to prevent stealing of the equipment. Eating: eating in whatever form should be discouraged. No user should attempt to repair any faulty system but the attention of a qualified engineer should be called in the event of any faulty equipment. All electrical appliances should be switched off at the end of each day’s activity. Noise: noise of all form should be discouraged such as stereo set, sound set etc. Always shut the door when coming in or going out. On no account should anyone remove cable from the socket. Always shut down the system properly and arrange the chairs before leaving computer room. Always cover the… Read More »COMPUTER LABORATORY RULES AND REGULATIONS

Computer-Studies

COMPUTER ROOM MANAGEMENT ETHICS

Definition of Computer Room Computer room is a room specially created for keeping computers and other peripheral devices. It is also called computer laboratory. In designing this room, the components of a computer room must be put into consideration. Components of a Computer Room Computer system Furniture (computer tables and chairs) Electric surge protector Stabilizer Air conditioner or ceiling fan Printer Scanner Dust cover Printing paper Photocopy machine Fire extinguisher Multimedia speaker Curtain Uninterruptible power supply Web camera Projector Interactive white board   Definition of Computer Room Management Ethics This refers to the basic rules and regulations governing the behavior of individuals while using computers in the laboratory. As a result of the delicate nature of the computer, it is very important to take good care of the computer to make it work properly. Always keep your computer in a dust-free room. Clean it regularly using a soft, dry cloth.… Read More »COMPUTER ROOM MANAGEMENT ETHICS

Business Studies

PARTS OF COMPUTER KEYBOARD

THE COMPUTER A computer is an electronic device that can accept data and process data in order to get the required information. The computer receives data through the input device, and it processes the data to generate 1information which it produces and displays through the output device.   PARTS OF THE COMPUTER A computer has four main parts which are: Keyboard Monitor The Central Processing Unit(CPU) or System Unit Mouse   Keyboard: A keyboard is an input device. It serves as a primary tool for accessing and inputting data. The computer keyboard is an important part which is used to enter command, text, numerical data and other parts of data by pressing the keys on the keyboard. A computer keyboard is very much like the keyboard of the typewriter. But it has additional keys that are used to carry out special functions.   The main parts of a computer keyboard… Read More »PARTS OF COMPUTER KEYBOARD

Computer-Studies

THE KEYBOARD AND TYPES OF KEYBOARD

THE KEYBOARD AND TYPES OF KEYBOARD CONTROL KEYS:they are used in line with other keys to instruct the computer to perform specific tasks. They are ctrl, del Esc and Alt. CURSOR- CONTROL  KEYS: otherwise known as curdor manipulations keys allow the user to move the cursor to the left, right, up one line and down one line. APPLICATION (TASK MENU): This perform the same function as right clicking the mouse. CTRL: This ia sometimes used in conjuction with one or two other keys to give command to the computer e.g. ctrl s, ctrl DEL: Stand for Delete, it is used to cancel the character to the right of the cursor and it can be used to delete selected text or object. WINDOWS LOGO KEYS: They are used to activate the start menu from which programs can be launched. ALT: This key can be used in combination with other keys e.g.… Read More »THE KEYBOARD AND TYPES OF KEYBOARD

Computer-Studies

THE KEYBOARD AND TYPES OF KEYBOARD

Definition of the Keyboard The keyboard is an input device that is used to send data into the computer.  Its cable must be connected to a port of the system unit before it can operate.  It is similar to an ordinary typewriter keyboard.  The keyboard is used mainly to enter alphabets from A – Z, numeric digits 0 – 9 and special signs and punctuation marks such as (  ), +, %, !etc. This device converts numbers, letters, and special characters that people understand into electrical signals.  These signals are sent to and processed by the CPU.  It is the most important input device.   TYPES OF KEYBOARD There are two types of keyboard.  These are: Standard keyboard Enhanced keyboard   STANDARD KEYBOARD This is a keyboard that has between 84 – 89 keys.  It has 10 function keys and 4 arrow keys.   ENHANCED KEYBOARD This keyboard has between… Read More »THE KEYBOARD AND TYPES OF KEYBOARD

Computer-Studies

FEATURES OF A COMPUTER

TYPES OF MICRO COMPUTER Micro computer is the smallest and the cheapest class of computers built for special purposes, e.g. for use in clocks, cameras etc.  Micro computer contains between ten thousand and two million bytes of internal memory locations, a micro processor and can allow few input/output devices to be attached to it.  Micro computer is often referred to as desktop computer because it can conveniently fit on desktop. Another name for micro computer is PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC).   TYPES OF MICRO COMPUTER Laptop Palmtop Notebook Desktop Tower etc.   EVALUATION What is microcomputer? Mention five types of micro computer.   REASONS WHY MICRO COMPUTERS ARE WIDELY USED It is very cheap. It has a small size. It is built for special purposes. It does not require special environment for its use. Micro computers can be used anywhere.   FEATURES OF COMPUTER AS EXCELLENT TOOL FOR DATA PROCESSING Increased… Read More »FEATURES OF A COMPUTER

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