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JSS 1 Basic Science (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

Basic Science

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Reproduction is the ability of living organism to produce young ones of their kind. It is necessary for the continuity of life. TYPES OF REPRODUCTION There are two main types of reproduction Asexual reproduction Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction: This is the type of reproduction that involves only one parent.  Examples are vegetative reproduction, binary fission etc. Sexual Reproduction: This involves the female and male sexes. The female produces a sex cell or gamete called ovum or egg. The male produces the male gametes called sperms.  The nuclei of the gametes from both sexes fuse during fertilization. Fertilization is the fusion of the male and the female sex cell to form zygote. PARTS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ORGAN FUNCTION a. Testes Produces the male sex (sperm) b. Scrotal sac Houses the testes c. Penis Introduces sperm into the vagina of the female d. Vas deferens Transfer sperm… Read More »REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Basic Science

DRUG AND DRUG ABUSE

A drug is a chemical substance which affects the action of the body. IMPORTANCE OF DRUG It saves life It relieves pain It relieve suffering It helps to fight against diseases It promotes food health. DRUG ABUSE This is the act of using drugs without the doctor’s advice and prescription. DRUG MISUSE This refers to the use of drugs for purpose for which it was not intended or using a drug excessively DRUG ADDICTION It is a state in which a person physically or psychologically depends on a drug(s) for survival. Causes of Drug Abuse Curiosity Lack of Self-Confidence Peer Group Pressure Excitement Frustration and Stress Side Effects of Drug Abuse It leads to bad behavior such as crime, violence and murder It can change the working of some of the body’s organs permanently It can damage the sense of reasoning It gradually damages the liver and other delicate organs… Read More »DRUG AND DRUG ABUSE

Basic Science

NUTRITION

Nutrition is the process of taking in food to get energy and maintain life. It is also called feeding in living organisms. FOOD Food is any substance which when eaten is used to maintain life and growth. Importance of Food To give energy To maintain life It makes us grow To make one stay healthy It helps to build the body and repair worn-out tissues It enables the body to fight against diseases. FOOD ITEMS OR FOOD STUFFS These are items or things that we eat. Examples are rice, beans, yam, garri, fish, groundnut etc. Meal – This is a combination of two or more food items eaten together. Diet – This refers to the meals that we eat everyday SOURCES OF FOOD Food items can be classified into two sources Plants Animals Plant sources Rootsg. cassava, carrot, etc. Underground stems e.g. Irish potato, yam, onion etc. Fruitsg. palm oil,… Read More »NUTRITION

Basic Science

FAMILY HEALTH

SANITATION Sanitation is the process of keeping places free from dirt which causes infections, diseases and germs. This is done by removing waste products (both solid and liquid) away from the environment. It is also the process of maintaining cleanliness. PERSONAL CLEANLINESS This refers to the way of keeping germs from our bodies in order to maintain a healthy state.  Germs are organisms that are capable of causing diseases to our body. PERSONAL HYGIENE This is the practice of taking care of our body in order to lead a healthy life. The science and practice of maintaining good health through cleanliness is called hygiene. Ways of Keeping our Body Clean Clean your teeth at least twice daily. Always wash your body daily by bathing. Wash your hair always and comb it to make it look neat. Always wash and keep your clothes neat. Cut and keep your finger nails clean.… Read More »FAMILY HEALTH

Basic Science

PUBERTY

This is the period during which growing boys and girls reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction. Usually, puberty starts between ages 8 and 13 in girls and ages 9 and 15 in boys. Pubertal Changes in Boys Broadening of the chest and shoulders. Deepening of the voice. Growth of moustache and beard. Growth of hair in the armpit and chest. Growth of hair in the pubic region. Increase in the size of the genitals (i.e. penis and testicles). Rapid growth in height. Wet dream (i.e. an involuntary discharge of semen through the penis). Pubertal Changes in Girls Increase in breast size. Growth of hair in the armpit. Widening of hips. Rapid growth in height. Growth of hair in the pubic region. Menstruation begins. Menstruation This is the monthly flow of blood through vagina of a female child of child-bearing age. The first occurrence of menstruation is called menarche.… Read More »PUBERTY

Basic Science

CLASSIFICATION OF NON-LIVING THINGS INTO METALS AND NON-METALS METALS

Metals are elements that readily form positive ions and have metallic bonds.  Examples are copper, iron, copper, etc. Properties of Metals They are good conductors of heat and electricity They are lustrous i.e. shiny and can be polished. They are malleable, that is, they are capable of being beaten into thin sheets. They are ductile, that is, they can be drawn into thin wire. They are generally strong and hard with high tensile strength They are sonorous, that is, they produce sound when struck. They have high densities. They have high melting and boiling points NON-METALS These are elements that do not have the properties of metals. Examples are sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine. Etc.   Properties of Non-metals They are poor conductors of heat and electricity They are not lustrous They are not malleable They are not ductile They are not sonorous They have low melting and boiling point They… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF NON-LIVING THINGS INTO METALS AND NON-METALS METALS

Basic Science

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS Plants exist in different forms. These are: Treesg. mango, orange, guava, pawpaw, etc. Flowers such as ice plant, hibiscus, yellow bush, pride of Barbados, etc. Herbs like crotalaria, carpet grass, Bahamas grass etc. Animals can be classified as: Vertebratesg. man, cat, goat, sheep, cow, chicken, rabbit etc. Invertebratesg. tse-tse fly, earthworm, cockroach etc. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS S/N CHARACTERISTICS PLANTS ANIMALS 1 Movement Passive movement Active movement 2 Reproduction Mostly asexual reproduction Mostly sexual reproduction 3 Nutrition Autotrophic Heterotrophic 4 Irritability Response to stimuli is slow Response to stimuli is quick 5 Excretion No developed excretory system Well-developed excretory system 6 Respiration Plants do not have complex organs for respiration Animals have complex organs for respiration 7 Food/feeding Plant produce their food Animals feed on already made food 8 Sense organs No sense organs Well-developed sense organs 9 Shape No definite shape because of… Read More »CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Basic Science

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS

Living things are things that have life in them.  Examples are man, insect, bird, fish, toad, lizard, yam, grass, etc. Living things are classified into two major group i.e. plants and animals. Non-living things are things that have no life in them.  Examples are stone, chair, table, water, shoe, bag, salt etc. The Characteristics of living things (Organisms) are the basic life processes that differentiate them from non-living (lifeless) things.  They can be represented by the acronym – “MR NIGER D” M _ Movement R _ Respiration N _ Nutrition I _ Irritability G _ Growth E _ Excretion R _ Reproduction D _ Death Movement: This is referred to as change of position or location. It is passive in plants but active in animals Respiration: This is the ability of living things to take in air. Nutrition: This is the process of feeding in living things. Plants can manufacture… Read More »CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS

Basic Science

MATTER

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.  Examples are a stone, sand, water, biro, air etc. All matter is made up of tiny particles called atom. PROPERTIES OF MATTER Matter occupy space Matter have mass Matter is made up of particles It exists in solids, liquids or gasses CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Matter can be classified into two major types Living Matter: This refers to things that have life in them e.g. goat, man, lion, plant etc. Non-Living Matter: This refers to things that have no life in them e.g. stone, water, chair, book, etc. STATES OF MATTER Matter exists in three main states. These are: Solid state Liquid state Gaseous state Solid State In the solid state the particles are held in fixed position.  They are arranged in a regular manner and hence have a fixed or definite shape. The particles are held together by strong force of… Read More »MATTER

Basic Science

SATELLITE

MEAINING OF STATELLITE Satellite is a body that orbits or moves round a planet e.g. the moon is a satellite of the earth Thus, the satellites or moons of the planet in our solar system are shown below PLANET                               NO OF SATELLITE Mercury                                   None Venus                                      None Earth                                       1 Mass                                        2 Jupiter                                     12 Saturn                                      9 Uranus                                     5 Neptune                                  2   NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES The moons that orbit the planets in solar system are natural satellite while artificial satellite are man made bodies, which were launched by various countries, and now orbiting the earth e.g. COUNTRY               YEAR OF FIRST LAUNCH          FIRST SATELLITE USSR                                      1957                                        Sputnik 1 USA                                        1958                                        Explorer 1 Australia                                  1964                                        Blue streak France                                                 1965                                        Asterix Japan                                       1970                                        Osumi China                                       1970                                        Dong fang hang 1 United kingdom                      1971                                        Prospero X-3 India                                        1979                                        Rohini 1 Israel                                       1988                                        Ofeg 1 Nigeria                                    2003                                        SAT 1… Read More »SATELLITE

Basic Science

THE EARTH IN SPACE

Man has been inquisitive about the sky, the moon and the stars for a very long time. Now, a lot has been known about the component of the universe and other celestial bodies.   THE SOLAR SYSTEM The sun and all the bodies orbiting round it makes up the SOLAR SYSTEM. The planets and their moons are the main bodies that revolve round the sun. Other bodies in the solar system are ASTEROIDS, COMETS, and METEROIDS   Nearest to the sun is mercury, the smallest of the planets. Then come Venus, Earth, Mass, Jupiter[the biggest planet], Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. The distance across the solar system is about 12000million kilometres.   EVALUATION Give the names of the biggest and the smallest planet. State the nine planets with their distance from their sun. Identify two examples of other bodies found in the solar system.   ROTATION AND REVOLUTION OF THE… Read More »THE EARTH IN SPACE

Basic Science

GRAVITATION AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

MEANING OF GRAVITATION Gravitation is a force that has effect on the stability of a body. If an object is tossed up the air, it will fall back to the ground because the earth exerts an attraction on it. This attraction is called gravitational attraction.   The gravitational attraction / force between any two object increases as the two objects approach each other.The earth has a great gravitational pull because it has a great mass. The gravitation pull of the earth is always directed to the centre.   WEIGHTLESSNESS Weightlessness is a feeling of being weightless. It does not mean having no weight. As someone move away from the surface, it progressively reduces. In the outer surface of the earth, a person or body has no weight because the gravitational pull of the earth is no longer acting there.   EVALUATION What is gravitation? Define the term weightlessness.   EFFECT… Read More »GRAVITATION AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

Basic Science

SPACE TRAVEL

MEANING OF SPACE TRAVEL The space outside the sun, earth, star is called outer space. Space travel is the travelling to the outer space beyond this earth. The space travellers are called astronaut. The earth is surrounded by a layer of air called atmosphere which can be divided into about 4 regions: Troposphere Stratosphere Lomosphere Exosphere Since 1957, man has been travelling to the space to find out what happens there. The meaning of space travel is, going to the moon or planets or orbiting the earth in a special craft called spaceship. Spaceship is moved by rockets. After leaving the earths atmosphere, gravity  no longer pulls the spaceship to the earth.   The astronauts wear special dress called suits and it help them to maintain the earths atmospheric pressure around the body throughout in space. They also carry dry foods and oxygen masks.   EVALUATION State the four divisions… Read More »SPACE TRAVEL

Basic Science

CALCULATION OF GRAVITATIONAL FORCES

CALCULATION OF WORK DONE AGAINST GRAVITY Suppose you lift an object of mass 1kg from the ground to a height of 1m, the work done in lifting the abject is calculated by using the formula Mgh Mgh = 1 x 1 x 9.8 joules (g = 9.8m 152) joule is the unit of work.   BALANCED AND UNBALANCED FORCES When an object is stationary, the forces acting on it are balanced forces. The sum of such forces acting on the body is zero and they act in opposite direction. When an object is in motion (moving), the forces acting on it are on balanced. The sum of such forces is not zero. Such forces are either acting in different direction or the same direction but are not equal in value. Unbalance forces cause a body to accelerate.   GENERAL EFFECT OF A FORCE A force causes motion of an object.… Read More »CALCULATION OF GRAVITATIONAL FORCES

Basic Science

FORCES

A force can be defined as any action that makes or tries to move, stop or alter the speed of a body in a given direction. TYPES OF FORCE There are two types of force namely: Contact force Non-contact   CONTACT FORCE These are  forces which sources are in contact with the body to which they are applied. The contact forces could be direct or indirect. Examples of contact forces are; Push, Pull ,Tension, Friction, Upthrust.   NON- CONTACT FORCES These are forces which the sources do not require contact with the body they are applied. These forces act through a region in space called field. They are therefore also called FORCE FIELDS. Example include: Gravitational force, Electric force, Magnetic force   MAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL FORCES In a bar magnetic, there is North pole end south pole end, the like poles repel each other while unlike poles attract each other.… Read More »FORCES

Basic Science

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

EFFECTS OF POLLUTION Environment Degradation Environment is the first casualty for increase in pollution weather in air or water. The increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to smog which can restrict sunlight from reaching the earth. Thus, preventing plants in the process of photosynthesis. Gases like Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can cause acid rain. Water pollution in terms of Oil spill may lead to death of several wildlife species.   Human Health The decrease in quality of air leads to several respiratory problems including asthma or lung cancer. Chest pain, congestion, throat inflammation, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease are some of diseases  that can be causes by air pollution. Water pollution occurs due to contamination of water and may pose skin related problems including skin irritations and rashes. Similarly, Noise pollution leads to hearing loss, stress and sleep disturbance.   Global Warming The emission of greenhouse… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Basic Science

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Pollution occurs when pollutants contaminate the natural surroundings; which brings about changes that affect our normal lifestyles adversely. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or that damage the environment which can come in the form of chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat or light.   Types of pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution Soil Pollution   WATER POLLUTION Water Pollution is the type of pollution that involves the contamination of various water bodies. Various aquatic creatures depend on these water bodies and its natural nutritious features to support its life. Water pollutants include insecticides and herbicides, food processing waste, pollutants from livestock operations, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heavy metals, chemical waste and others.   EVALUATION What is pollution? Mention three types of pollution.   CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION Industrial waste gets dumped into these water… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Basic Science

RENEWABLE ENERGY

Energy is the amount of force or power when applied can move one object from one position to another or Energy defines the capacity of a system to do work. Energy exists in everybody whether they are human beings or animals or non living things for e.g.: Jet, Light, Machines etc.   What are the Sources of Energy? Energy is broadly classified into two main groups: Renewable and Non-renewable.   Renewable Energy Renewable energy is the energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required. They are available in plenty and by far the most cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. E.g. energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. Similarly, energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used to fulfill our daily energy demands. Here… Read More »RENEWABLE ENERGY

Basic Science

ENERGY

Energy is the amount of force or power when applied can move one object from one position to another or Energy defines the capacity of a system to do work. Energy exists in everybody whether they are human beings or animals or non living things for e.g.: Jet, Light, Machines etc.   SOURCES OF ENERGY Solar Energy: Solar power harvests the energy of the sun through using collector panels to create conditions that can then be turned into a kind of power. Large solar panel fields are often used in desert to gather enough power to charge small substations, and many homes use solar systems to provide for hot water, cooling and supplement their electricity. The issue with solar is that while there is plentiful amounts of sun available, only certain geographical ranges of the world get enough of the direct power of the sun for long enough to generate… Read More »ENERGY

Basic Science

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS COUNSELLING AND TESTING VCT stands for voluntary counseling and testing.  VCT is when a person chooses to undergo HIV/AIDS counseling so that they can make an informed decision about whether to be tested for HIV.  The government is encouraging all of us to come forward to be tested for HIV.  it believes that if many of us get tested, even though we may not be sick, this will help to lessen the amount of stigma associated with the HIV test.  Also, if we find out at an earlier stage, that we are infected with HIV, we can Learn more about the virus and how it affects our body. Look after our health so that we stay as healthy as possible for as long as possible. Get information and counseling around how to live positively with the virus.  This means learning to accept the fact that we are HIV-infected, seeking emotional… Read More »HIV/AIDS

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