The meaning of Geography 

  • Scientific study of the earth as a home of man.
  • Study of interrelationship on natural and human phenomena on the earth’s surface.


  • The surroundings
  • All external conditions surrounding an organism which has influence over its behaviour.

Environment can be divided into two:

  1. The Physical Environment
  • Natural physical conditions of weather, climate, vegetation, animals, soil, land forms and drainage.
  1. The Human Environment
  • Human activities such as farming, forestry, mining, tourism, settlement, transportation, trade and industry.

Branches of Geography

  1. Physical Geography
  • Deals with the study of natural physical environment of human kind. The areas covered include:
  1. a) Geology-study of the origin, structure and composition of the earth. It includes study of rocks.
  2. b) Geomorphology– the study of internal and external land forming processes and land forms.
  3. c) Climatology– the study of climate and weather
  4. d) Pedology– the study of soils
  5. e) Biogeography– the study of soils, vegetation and animals.
  6. f) Hydrology– the study of water bodies
  7. g) Spatial geography -study of space
  8. Human and Economic Geography
See also  TOURISM

-Study of people and their activities on the earth’s surface.

The areas covered include:

  1. a) Mining
  2. b) Forestry
  3. c) Agriculture
  4. d) Fishing
  5. e) Wildlife and tourism
  6. f) Industry
  7. g) Energy etc.
  8. Practical Geography

-A smaller branch which equips the learner with practical skills that enhance their understanding and interpretation of human and physical geographical information.

The areas are:

  1. a) Statistical methods
  2. b) Map work
  3. c) Field work
  4. d) Photograph work

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