INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY
The meaning of Geography
- Scientific study of the earth as a home of man.
- Study of interrelationship on natural and human phenomena on the earth’s surface.
- The surroundings
- All external conditions surrounding an organism which has influence over its behaviour.
Environment can be divided into two:
- The Physical Environment
- Natural physical conditions of weather, climate, vegetation, animals, soil, land forms and drainage.
- The Human Environment
- Human activities such as farming, forestry, mining, tourism, settlement, transportation, trade and industry.
Branches of Geography
- Physical Geography
- Deals with the study of natural physical environment of human kind. The areas covered include:
- a) Geology-study of the origin, structure and composition of the earth. It includes study of rocks.
- b) Geomorphology– the study of internal and external land forming processes and land forms.
- c) Climatology– the study of climate and weather
- d) Pedology– the study of soils
- e) Biogeography– the study of soils, vegetation and animals.
- f) Hydrology– the study of water bodies
- g) Spatial geography -study of space
- Human and Economic Geography
-Study of people and their activities on the earth’s surface.
The areas covered include:
- a) Mining
- b) Forestry
- c) Agriculture
- d) Fishing
- e) Wildlife and tourism
- f) Industry
- g) Energy etc.
- Practical Geography
-A smaller branch which equips the learner with practical skills that enhance their understanding and interpretation of human and physical geographical information.
The areas are:
- a) Statistical methods
- b) Map work
- c) Field work
- d) Photograph work