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HUMAN EAR – STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS AND PARTS,

Biology

Biology

HUMAN EAR –

STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS AND PARTS

The Mammalian Ear

The mammalian ear performs two major functions: Hearing and detecting changes in the positions of the body to bring about balance and posture.

The ear is divided into three sections.

The Outer Ear

This consists of:

 

The Middle Ear

 

The Inner Ear

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE EAR

Hearing

  1. The sound waves set the tympanum vibrating and are transformed into vibrations.
  2. The vibrations are transmitted to the oval window by the three ossicles.
  3. Vibrations of the oval window cause the fluids inside the cochlea tube to vibrate.
  4. The membranes inside the cochlea have sensory cells which change the sound vibrations to nerve impulses.
  5. These are transmitted to the brain through the auditory nerve.
  6. Hearing is perceived in the brain.

 

Balance and posture

  1. The semi-circular canals
  2. There are three semi-circular canals in each ear.
  3. They are situated at right angles to each other and each one is sensitive to movement in a different plane.
  4. They are filled with fluid and each has a swelling called the ampulla at one end.
  5. Inside the ampulla are sensory cells.
  6. Balance and posture are detected by these cells.
  7. Movement of the head in a given direction causes the fluid to move the hairs on sensory cells.
  8. This transmits impulses to the brain through the auditory nerve so that the movement is registered.

 

Defects of the ear

Acute labyrinthitis

Tinnitis:

Deafness.

 

This may be as a result of:

Otitis Media

 

See also:

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PARTS OF THE HUMAN EYE

EFFECTS OF DRUGS ABUSE ON THE HUMAN HEALTH

THE ROLE OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS

SPINAL CORD

FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR PARTS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

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