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Home Economics (Primary Classes)

PHE (Primary Classes)

ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO

Both tobacco and alcohol are defined as drugs but they are different and similar in some ways. They are similar because they are harmful to the body when abused and they make people to be addicted to it. While they are different is because a little alcohol can be good for the health of the heart of an adults but tobacco is not good for our health instead it causes lungs cancer, loss of energy. MEANING OF ALCOHOL Alcohol is a colourless, volatile flammable liquid like the intoxicating constituent of wine, bear and spirit. It is also called ETHANOL. TYPES OF ALCOHOL Beer: larger beer (Star, Gulder) and Ale (bitter ale, abbey ale). Wine: red wine, white wine, rose wine, Champagne. Spirit: gin, Vodka, Tequila. TYPES OF TOBACCO Aromatic fire –cured smoking tobacco bright leaf tobacco burley tobacco Cavendish Corojo Criollo tobacco oriental tobacco REASONS WHY PEOPLE DRINK OR SMOKE Some of the reasons… Read More »ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

USES OF SEAM

Uses of plain seam It is used for joining materials which are meant to show as little as possible e.g. joining underarm, sleeve, and seam on clothing of all kinds.   Uses of run and fell Good for clothing needing hand wear and frequent washing e.g. shirt, jeans, under wear; night wears, overall, short. Uses of French seam The seam is good for under cloth, also used on fine blouses, children wear. The seam can be made on dresses, blouses and overalls requiring frequent washing   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES STEP I; The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. STEPII: The Teacher introduces the new topic. STEP III: The Teacher explains the note in details. STEPIV: The Teacher gives room for pupils to ask questions. STEPV: The Teacher evaluates the pupils.   ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Define run and fell seam List the method of making run and fell seam Define French… Read More »USES OF SEAM

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

SEAM11

RUN AND FELL SEAM This is a strong seam. The seam is flat and the easiest seam among the seam to launder. Method: Cut the material and place together with the right and side facing matching balance marks. Place the Machine stitch along fitting line Remove task and press Tread seam allowances of one edge longer than the other Fold the longer edge over the lesser edge, press fold edge after tacking Hem neatly either by hand or machine Remove task and press. FRENCH SEAM French seam: The seam is strong and self neaten, it launders well. It is used on fine fabrics only.   Method: Cut the material and place wrong side together Pick and tack through fitting line. Machine stitch outside the fitting line Press turning open and tream the raw edges. Turn the seam to the right side of the materials facing each other. Push the seam… Read More »SEAM11

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

MEANING OF SEAM

These are joining on the materials e.g. shoulders, sides, sleeve, waistline, collar etc. There are different types of seam e.g. Open seam, overlaid seam, piped seam, Mantua seam etc. TYPES OF SEAM Open seam Overlaid seam Piped seam Mantua seam OPEN SEAM This is a flat seam showing no stitches on the right side. Method: Cut two pieces of materials to required length. Place the two pieces of materials together, right side Facing pin.- Tack together and stitch on the wrong side Remove the pins.- Neaten the raw edges and press. STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES STEP I; The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. STEPII: The Teacher introduces the new topic. STEP III: The Teacher explains the note in details. STEPIV: The Teacher gives room for pupils to ask questions. STEPV: The Teacher evaluates the pupils.   ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Define seam List the types of seam ASSIGNMENT What is seam?… Read More »MEANING OF SEAM

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

MAKING BLANKET OR LOOP STITCHES

Loop stitch is a fun and effective way to finish blankets, cushions etc Hold the edge towards the worker and work the stitch from left to right. Place the needle into the right side of the material. Pass the single thread of cotton which comes from the material under the point of the needle From left to right Draw the needle through so that a loop lies along the edge of the cloth. Display of some simple decorative stitches on brown paper.   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES STEP I: The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. STEPII: The Teacher introduces the new topic. STEP III: The Teacher explains the note in details. STEPIV: The Teacher gives room for pupils to ask questions. STEPV: The Teacher evaluates the pupils. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Know how to make a loop stitches or blankets stitches Display of some simple decorative stitches on paper   ASSIGNMENT… Read More »MAKING BLANKET OR LOOP STITCHES

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

PRACTICAL DECORATIVE STITCHES ON BROWN PAPER

HERRING- BORNE Herring borne is used as a decorative stitch for finishing hems and raw edges of sams. How it is worked Make a running stitch on single material just below the raw edge and a little way to the right, Bring the needle out beneath the end of a back Stitch mode a double fabric Take the next running stitch in double materials a little to the right. Bring out above the end of the first running stitch Continue working on stitches this way. STEM STITCH Stem stitch: It is often used as an outline stitch mostly for stems and leaves. Method: Work the stitch to progress from the worker Bring the needle out on the line to be stitched. Put the needle in a short distance along the line and bring it out half way down. Keep the thread on the right hand side of the line Work… Read More »PRACTICAL DECORATIVE STITCHES ON BROWN PAPER

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

TYPES OF DECORATIVE STITCHES

Decorative Stitches There are different kinds of embroidery which are known by special names such as cut work, drawn thread work, appliqu, smocking etc. Lazy stitch 16. Bullion stitch blanket stitch 17. Satin stitch chain stitch 18. Hem stitch French knot stitch 19. Smocking stitch Fly stitch Cross stitch Stem stitch Cable stitch Chevron stitch Straight stitch Feather stitch Seed stitch Couching stitch Fish bone stitch Herringbone stitch   PRACTICAL WORK: SIMPLE DECORATIVE STITCHES ON BROWN PAPER: CHAIN STITCH Chain stitches done side by side to fill large shapes and it is used to wok single lines Bring needle out of the line to be stitched Hold the thread to the left. Put the needle back to where it just comes out Bring it out in short space further down Pass the threads under the needle from left to right Draw the needle through to form the first link of… Read More »TYPES OF DECORATIVE STITCHES

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

PROCESS OF BASIC STITCHES

Even tacking Uneven tacking Diagonal tacking Tailor’s tacking Even Tacking: Use a thin needle and start the stitch with a knot. The stitches are of equal length about on both sides of the material. Much number of longer stitches can be done at a time. This is used for tacking seams & other details which must be held securely. Uneven Tacking: In this, the stitches on the upper side is or at least twice that on the underside. This stitch can be used for longer folds & seams. This is comparatively stronger than even tacking. Use this type of tacking as a guideline or where there is little or no strain. Diagonal Tacking: While attaching two or more layer of fabrics this type of stitch is made about apart before making machine stitch. Work stitches through the material at right angles to the fabric edge so that a diagonal or… Read More »PROCESS OF BASIC STITCHES

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

PERMANENT STITCHES

These stitches are made permanent on the fabric and need not be removed later like Temporary stitches. The stitching works from left to right ‘taking a small stitch; then insert the needle at the end of the previous stitch; bringing it out beyond where the thread emerges. Continue always at the end of the previous stitch. Some of permanent stitches are 1. Running stitch 2.Back stitch 3. Run and back stitch 4. Hemming stitch  5. Whipping stitch.   1. Running Stitch:  This is the simplest form of hand stitch which is used for permanent sewing stitched using same color thread. Hand made seams, darning, gathering and finishing edges can be done with this stitch. It is similar to even basting, but the stitches are much smaller, straight, fine and evenly spaced. It is comparatively easy and can be worked fast. Back stitch: The is strong and sometimes substituted for machine… Read More »PERMANENT STITCHES

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

SEWING BASIC STITCHES

A stitch is the journey of two pieces of materials with a line of stitch. Stitches means the movement of thread and needle in and out of the stitches.               MATERIALS NEEDED FOR STITCHES Needle Thread Scissors Ruler Tailor’s chalk or marking pencil Straight pin                  TYPES OF STITCHES Temporary stitches Permanent stitches             TEMPORARY STITCHES Temporary stitches are used for joining materials temporarily before the permanent stitch is made. It is worked from right to left, starting with a knot in a contrasting color thread, so that it can be easily removed. Tacking or basting is a temporary stitch used for holding two or more layers of fabric together before a permanent stitch is made. Usually the stitch is worked from right to left, starting with a knot in a contrasting color thread, so that it can be easily removed. PROCESS OF… Read More »SEWING BASIC STITCHES

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS

Income yielding crafts are craft items that are produced for sales. For example, beads, apron and cap, baskets, bags, pots, artworks, etc. These craft items are produced with hands and special skills in return exchange for money. Some of these crafts can be used for decoration of self or the home.  TYPES OF INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS There are hundreds, if not thousands of different varieties of handicrafts. The following list of crafts is included merely for illustrative purposes. Textiles Appliqué, Crocheting, Embroidery, Felt – making, Knitting, Lace – making, Macramé, Quilting, Tapestry art, Weaving. Woodcraft Wood – carving, Wood – turning, Cabinet making, Furniture making, lacquerware. Papercraft Paper Modelling, Collage, Decoupage, Origami paper folding, Papier mâché. Pottery and Glass Crafts Ceramics (earthenware, stoneware, porcelain), Mosaic Art, Glass Bead making, Glass Blowing, Glass Etching, (see Stained Glass Art Materials/Methods). Jewellery Metalwork involving processes like embossing, repoussé work, engraving, enamelling (types include… Read More »INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS

MEANING OF INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS Income yielding crafts are craft items that are produced for sales. For example, beads, apron and cap, baskets, bags, pots, artworks, etc. These craft items are produced with hands and special skills in return exchange for money. Some of these crafts can be used for decoration of self or the home. ARTICLES MADE FOR HOUSEHOLD USE Face mask Head rest Table mat Napkin Purse Arm rest Hand bag Chair and table Basket Assorted puffs Purse Shopping Curtain holder Handkerchief Pot holders, Dye and tie, etc.   IMPORTANCE OF INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS The importance of income yielding craft is: It generates income (money). It represents cultural heritage. It is an original version of foreign made good. It reveals individual creativity. It encourages the use of local made products. It gives people sense of belongings.   PRESENTATION Step 1: Teacher revised the previous topic Step 2: Teacher… Read More »INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

HOW TO PRODUCE SIMPLE CLOTHING ARTICLES – APRON AND CAP

INTRODUCTION (APRON) Apron is a piece of clothing that chef wear over the front of other clothes before you start cooking to prevent the cloth from getting dirty when you are cooking. Cap is also a piece of clothing wear to prevent broken hair falling inside the dishes. Simple Apron and Cap are easy to make in an hour or less. MATERIALS NEEDED FOR MAKING APRON Brown paper Fabric Thread that matches fabric Pin Scissor Measuring tape   PREPARATION OF PATTERNS AND CUTTING OUT  APRON Make a paper pattern of apron, belts, neck band and pocket. Straighten the fabric. Fold the fabric into two with the right side together. Place patterns pieces on the fabric. Pin the pattern pieces and cut out. Transfer all patterns making to the fabric. Stitch altogether.   CAP Mark appropriate circle on brown paper. Place on fabric, mark and cut. Stitch around the edge. Mark… Read More »HOW TO PRODUCE SIMPLE CLOTHING ARTICLES – APRON AND CAP

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

Sewing Measuring Tools

Measuring Tools are tools used for patterns and body measurements to ensure accuracy and good outfits. It is important and professional take accurate measurements in order to ensure good outfits. For accurate measurements, the following sewing measuring tools are used.  SEWING MEASURING TOOLS Measuring and sewing tools for body measurement and garment construction – Tape measure Tailor’s chalk Ruler Scissor Cutting board/table Pin cushion Pins Needle Flat iron Ironing board, etc.   TAKING MALE AND WOMAN BODY MEASUREMENTS Men’s Sizing Charts Parts of the body to be measured – Chest Take measurement up under the arms and around chest. Sleeves Measure from the base of the neck, across shoulder, down arm to slightly bent elbow and up to wrist. Waist Measure circumference at the narrowest part. Hips Measure at the fullest point, standing with feet together. Hats Measure around the largest part of the head. Gloves and mitts On adult… Read More »Sewing Measuring Tools

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

THE SEWING MACHINE LEARNING AREA

INTRODUCTION A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines can be exciting but also totally overwhelming when you don’t know how to use the machine! In sewing, the first place to start is how to use a sewing machine!   HOW TO USE SEW SEWING MACHINE Select a straight stitch and a medium stitch length. A straight stitch is used to sew most seams. Practice on some scrap material. Line up the fabric under the needle. Lower the presser foot onto the fabric. Hold the loose ends of both threads. Press the foot pedal. Find the reverse button or lever and try it. Use the hand wheel to move the needle to its highest position. Cut the thread. Practice sewing a seam. Move to another part of the fabric. Learn to sew a sharp corner. Try a simple project.  … Read More »THE SEWING MACHINE LEARNING AREA

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

SEWING MACHINE

INTRODUCTION A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies.   TYPES OF SEWING MACHINE Handy Sewing Machine Handy Stitch is also known as the portable hand-held sewing machine. It is great for quick repairs or jobs that conventional desktop machines can not handle, like sewing curtains while on the rod, or mending a torn pocket without having to remove your pants. Mechanical Sewing Machine These machines are also called as manual machines/tailoring machine/treadle sewing machine/domestic sewing machines where the basic settings are done manually by the user. These machines are best suitable for the beginners who want to learn sewing from basics. Electronic Sewing Machine Electronic sewing machines have more features than a mechanical sewing machine.These sewing machines are the combination… Read More »SEWING MACHINE

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

Care and Maintenance of Clothing

Maintenance of clothing is the way of keeping clothes clean and lasts longer Ways of caring and maintaining clothes Mend your clothes as soon as they are torn Store clothes properly, either by folding neatly and storing in boxes/suitcases or hanging with suitable hangers. Do not store dirty or damp clothes Wash clothes as soon as they are dirty Study label on the clothes Change under wears everyday   See also Making Simple Apron How to Produce Simple Clothing Article Simple Clothing Article BODY MEASUREMENTS DISEASES

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

Making Simple Relevant Clothing Articles

Making of tray cover Materials needed: Suitable material for tray conversing. plain cloth Matching thread Embroidery thread  Procedure for making tray cover Measure and cut out materials according to the shape and size of the tray Make any desired design on the cover Fold in and press about 2.5cm double hem around the edges Tack and stitch with hemming stitching or other decorative stitches. Make the design with suitable decorative stitches   See also INCOME YIELDING CRAFTS HOW TO PRODUCE SIMPLE CLOTHING ARTICLES – APRON AND CAP Sewing Measuring Tools THE SEWING MACHINE LEARNING AREA MATERIALS NEEDED FOR MAKING APRON

Home Economics (Primary Classes)

Making Simple Apron

Turn in 15mm double hems along curved sides (under arms) and the straight sides Pins, tacks and press hem Hand stitch the hems, using hemming stitch Turn, pin and tack 2cm at the top and bottom of apron then hem Prepare the neck band and belts as follows. Fold each length wise with right side facing and edges even Tack and stitch along seam lines, leaving one short edge open. Use back stitch Turn each piece to the right side and press flat   Prepare the object for apron – Turn a 10mm single hem along the top of the pocket – Turn under 10mm round the rest of the pocket, clipping as necessary. – Tack neck band, belts and pockets in the proper positions – Stitch each firmly – Remove tacking thread and press apron   Strategies & Activities: Step 1: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher… Read More »Making Simple Apron

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