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Government (Secondary School)

ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ACHIVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

ACHIEVEMENTS OF OPEC The organization has created a forum where member states can resolve their problems. The organization has put the activities of multi-national companies to check. The common fund established by the organization has helped to reduce the financial problems of the members. The organization has encouraged member states to take part in oil exploration. OPEC has succeeded to some extent in regulating production of oil and raising the prize of oil in recent time.   PROBLEMS OF OPEC The issue of quota: Member states do not abide by the directives of the organization on oil quota. The discovery of North sea oil and the competition is a great threat to prize stabilization. Oil storage: The rate at which some developed countries are storing crude oil, is a great threat to OPEC. Frequent international crisis has affected the prize of oil. e.g the Gulf war (1990-1991). Economic depression worldwide… Read More »ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ACHIVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

Government (Secondary School)

ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ORIGIN, AIMS, OBJECTIVES, ORGANS

ORIGIN OF OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (0PEC) , comprises of 13 third world petroleum producing countries , formed in 1960 to promote and protect the interest of its members. OPEC as an organization was formed as a reaction to the exploitative motives of multinational companies, which as at that time were controlling oil operation in the oil producing countries in 1960. Five oil producing countries met in Baghdad the capital of Iraq to form a union that will fight against the exploitative tendencies of multinational companies. The five countries that held the meeting were; Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Some other countries later joined the organization because of its effort in curtailing the activities of the oil companies. Countries like Algeria (1969), Nigeria (1971), Gabon and United Arab Emirate (1973), joined the organization. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OPEC was established so as to stabilize price of oil… Read More »ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ORIGIN, AIMS, OBJECTIVES, ORGANS

Government (Secondary School)

ECONOMIC COMMUINTY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS) | ACHIEVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

ACHIEVEMENTS OF ECOWAS The body has removed all customs duties in the areas of importation and exportation of goods within the sub-region. Member states cooperate in the areas of sports and culture. ECOWAS has helped to unite the people of member nations irrespective of the differences in ideology, beliefs and so on. Formation of ECOMOG: ECOMOG was formed through ECOWAS to help maintain peace in the sub-region and it helped to restore democracy in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Member states of ECOWAS spoke against Apartheid in South Africa and neo-colonialism. The organization helped in removing all administrative restrictions on trade within the sub-region. Member states mediate in disputes among states, e.g. Nigeria and Chad, Liberia, Sierra Leone and so on. The body has eliminated obstacles to movements of persons, services and capital within the sub-region. See also: UNITED NATION ORGANIZATION | ORIGIN, PRINCIPLES, AIMS & OBJEVTIVES PROBLEMS OR WEAKNESSES OF… Read More »ECONOMIC COMMUINTY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS) | ACHIEVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

Government (Secondary School)

ECONOMIC COMMUINITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS).

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was created by the Treaty in Lagos, Nigeria, on 28th May, 1975. It was created to promote economic trade, national cooperation and monetary union, for growth and development throughout West Africa. The administrative headquarters of the community is located in Abuja, while the fund raising headquarters is located in Lome, Togo. The establishment of the organization was masterminded by General Yakubu Gowon of Nigeria and President Eyadema of Togo. There are currently 15 member countries in the Economic Community of West African States. The founding members of ECOWAS were : Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania (left 2002), Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Burkina Faso ( which joined as Upper Volta). Cape Verde joined in 1977.   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF ECOWAS To promote cooperation and integration in all fields of economic activities. To raise… Read More »ECONOMIC COMMUINITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS).

Government (Secondary School)

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF THE U.N.O | PURPOSES, ACHIEVEMENTS, PROBLEMS

PURPOSES OF THE AGENCIES OF U.N.O To reduce international conflicts: The establishment of this agencies has helped to a very large extend in reducing international conflicts to the barest minimum. International interests: Another purpose for setting up these agencies is to integrate the interest of the various nations. To promote World peace: The establishment of these special agencies is to bring about World peace through the sharing of common interest by these agencies. To bring nations together: These agencies were set up with the believe that it would go beyond national boundaries and harmonizes interest of diverse nature. Creation of a World community: These agencies have the purpose of bringing the World together to become a World community devoid of war and conflicts.   ACHIEVEMENTS OF U.N.O Contribution to International Security: The U.N. has so far succeeded in averting war at World wide dimension. Although war has not been completely… Read More »SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF THE U.N.O | PURPOSES, ACHIEVEMENTS, PROBLEMS

Government (Secondary School)

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF U.N.O | ILO, W.H.O, F.A.O., UNESCO, UNICEF & I.M.F

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF U.N.O Specialized agencies are bodies that are independent which exist under the umbrella of the U.N.O. These agencies are given special assignments which help U.N.O. to achieve its aims and objectives. The activities of these specialized agencies are coordinated and supervised by the min organ of the U.N.O. called the Economic and Social Council. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION This agency was established 1919 by the League of Nations with headquarter in Geneva. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION Improvement of workers: It was established to help improve labour condition of workers Standard of living: It was established to raised the standard of living World wide. Promotion of economic and Social stability: It was formed to enhance the promotion of economic and Social stability. Child Labour: It campaigns against child labour and slavery. Research: It conducts extensive research in the field of power and vocational training. Celebrates Workers… Read More »SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF U.N.O | ILO, W.H.O, F.A.O., UNESCO, UNICEF & I.M.F

Government (Secondary School)

UNITED NATIONS | GENERAL ASSEMBLY, SECURITY, TRUSTEESHIP, ECONOMIC & SOCIAL COUNCIL

ORGANS OF THE U.N.O The following are the organs of U.N.O The General Assembly. The Security Council. The Secretariat. The trusteeship Council. The international Court of Justice. The Economic and Social Council. The General Assembly The General Assembly is the central organ of the U.N.O. Its membership includes all member countries of the U.N.O. Each state is entitled to five representatives or delegation. The Assembly meets once in a year on regular session. The General Assembly has the power to deliberate on any matter that falls within the jurisdiction of the organization’s interest. On important matters, decisions are made by two –third of the members present to vote. Decisions on ordinary matters are reached by a simple majority. The chairmanship of the Assembly is held for one year and rotated among member-states. FUNCTIONS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY Deliberative function: It provides a forum for the discussion of world peace and… Read More »UNITED NATIONS | GENERAL ASSEMBLY, SECURITY, TRUSTEESHIP, ECONOMIC & SOCIAL COUNCIL

Government (Secondary School)

UNITED NATION ORGANIZATION | ORIGIN, PRINCIPLES, AIMS & OBJEVTIVES

Origin of U.N.O The United Nation Organization came into being on October 24, 1945 as a successor to the League of Nations, which collapsed as a result of the Second World War. The formation of the U.N.O. was led by the victorious powers, which were United Kingdom, America, Russia and China. The United Nation has its headquarters in New York, United States of America. Admission into the U.N.O is open to all peace loving countries.   The Principles of U.N.O Respect for the sovereign equality of all nations. Provision of military assistance to troubled states when it is called to do so. Promotion of democratic principles. Maintenance of international peace and security. The use of force in settling dispute should be discouraged. Peaceful settlement of disputes. Unity and cooperation among member nations.   Aims and Objectives of the U.N.O To maintain international peace and security. To settle disputes through peaceful… Read More »UNITED NATION ORGANIZATION | ORIGIN, PRINCIPLES, AIMS & OBJEVTIVES

Government (Secondary School)

COMMON WEALTH OF NATIONS | ORGANS, ACHIEVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS $ PROBLEMS

ORGANS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS The following are the organs of the Commonwealth of Nations and their functions. The Prime Minister’s Conference; The prime minister’s conference is the highest organ of the Commonwealth. This organ is composed of the Heads of State and government of member-states or their accredited representatives. Functions Approval of Budget: It is the sole responsibility of the Prime Minister’s of member-states to receive and approve the budget of the organization. Appointment of the Secretary-General: It is the body that appoints the Secretary-General of the organization. Discussion of Problems: The Prime ministers of member-states discuss issues, problems as they affect member states and give recommendations or solutions for such problems. Power of Sanction: The Prime minster of member-states has the power to sanction any member that does not adhere to the aims and objectives upon which the organization was established for example, Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth… Read More »COMMON WEALTH OF NATIONS | ORGANS, ACHIEVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS $ PROBLEMS

Government (Secondary School)

COMMON WEALTH | AIMS, OBJECTIVES, BACKGROUND, MEMBERSHIP,& FEATURES

The Common Wealth of Nation is a voluntary association of the independent Countries who were formerly British Colonies. It is made up of Britain and Countries that were at one point in time or the other British colonies. The United States of America, though a former British colony, is not a member. The British monarch (the queen) is the head of the common wealth. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF COMMON WEALTH The origin of Commonwealth started with British desire to conquer greater part of the world as its empire. All the territories acquired by Britain formed the British Empire. Countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa who were formerly Brother colonies were granted responsible and representative governments in the 19th century. With that status, these countries were granted the freedom to elect their own legislature, manage their own internal affairs but they were still linked with Britain and their governors… Read More »COMMON WEALTH | AIMS, OBJECTIVES, BACKGROUND, MEMBERSHIP,& FEATURES

Government (Secondary School)

AFRICAN UNION | HISTORICAL, AIMS, OBJECTIVES, ACHIEVEMENTS & STRUCTURE

The African Union was established on Monday 8th of July 2002 by African Heads of State in Durban South Africa. This marked the end of organization of Africa Unity (O.A.U) after 39 years of its existence. The formation of African Union (A.U) was initiated by Libyan leader Moamen Gadhafi, who first proposed it as a full blown “United States of Africa.”  The 37th summit of the organization of Africa Union (O.A.U) held between the 9th -13th of July, 2001 was when the protocol establishing A.U. was signed. This summit was held in Lome, Togo and that was the last summit of the O.A.U. Africa Union has 53 members which include every African nation, except Morocco which withdrew from the O.A.U in 1985 after the admission of Western Sahara into O.A.U. The A.U has the power to interfere in the internal affairs of members, unlike the O.A.U.   Aims and Objectives… Read More »AFRICAN UNION | HISTORICAL, AIMS, OBJECTIVES, ACHIEVEMENTS & STRUCTURE

Government (Secondary School)

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

UNITARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT This can be defined as one in which all governmental powers and functions that exist in a state or country are concentrated in a single central government. There is no constitutional division of powers in the country. Examples of countries that adopts unitary system are; Britain, France, Italy and so on.   FEATURES OF A UNITARY GOVERNMENT There is no constitutional division of powers. All powers and functions are concentrated in the hands of the central government. It is suitable for homogenous states. The system is best practiced in a relatively small state or country. The constitution is flexible. The parliamentary is supreme in a unitary form of government. The central government may have the power to modify the constitution. There is no conflict of authority since the central government possess all the powers.   REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF A UNITARY GOVERNMENT For efficient administration.… Read More »TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION

POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION Political Socialization is a process whereby the citizens of a country are educated on the values, attitudes and beliefs of the political system. The political culture of the society is transmitted from one generation to another through political socialization.   The citizens of a country are politically aware and know the roles they should play. Through political socialization, the citizens display pride, patriotism, loyalty and above all nationalistic feelings to the nation.   Agents of Political Socialization The Family: the home is the first place one receives political upbringing. Children learn by observation and tend to do whatever they learn. The School: Through educational institutions, one can learn about national politics, history and practise how to play political roles. The Peer Groups: a person is known by the group he keeps. Playmates and friends influence one’s political views. Political Parties: they stimulate the political awareness and consciousness of… Read More »POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

STATE A state may be simply defined as a politically organized body of people occupying a definite geographical entity/territory with an organized government, free from external control and has coercive power to secure obedience from its citizens and others.   Characteristics of a State Population: one major feature of a state is population. There must be a given number of people without a minimum or maximum to occupy it. Territory; a state must possess a definite territory which includes air, ocean and other natural features. It might be either small or big with clear-cut boundaries separating it from others. Government; the government makes a state effective as it runs the affairs of the state. The government performs its function on behalf of the state as it makes and enforces laws. The government maintains the existence and survival of a state. Sovereignty; this refers to the power of a state to… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

FASCISM Fascism is an ideology based on the concept of force and total compliance to the tunes of the authority. It is regarded as a philosophy, principle, and organization of the aggressive nationalist and anti-communist dictatorship.   It started as a movement in Italy in 1922 and came to an end in 1943 under Benito Mussolini. The ideology condemns both capitalism and socialism, rejects peace, democracy and the rule of law and rather glorifies war.   Features of Fascism Fascism as an ideology encourages aggressive nationalism; In a Fascist state, the political leader is supreme, respected and even worshipped; The leader makes all laws. Rights and authority are derived from him; This system does not give room for the existence of any form of opposition. Where there is an opposition, it is usually destroyed by force; The state has absolute control over all aspects of a citizen’s life e.g. religion,… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

SOCIALISM Socialism may be defined as an ideology that advocates collective ownership, control and organization of the means of production, distribution and exchange of goods and services. In this system, most of the factors of production and distribution are controlled and operated by the government on behalf of the citizens. Goods and services are produced with the aim of satisfying the wants of the whole citizens and not to the profit derived.   This ideology was formulated by Karl Marx, a German (1816 – 1883) and through this ideology; he hoped to fight the evils of capitalism.   Features of Socialism The government owns and controls almost all the means of production and distribution; Goods and services are not produced to make profits but rather according to the needs and satisfaction of the citizens; There is a central planning of production, distribution and exchange of goods and services; Full employment… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

COMMUNALISM Communalism refers to a political and economic arrangement in which land, the major factor of production is collectively owned. In a communal community for instance, members pursue a common goal collectively and properties like land are owned collectively and shared among members on an equal basis. In this system, resources are utilized for the general interest of everybody.   Features of Communalism There are no class systems; everybody co-operates with each other; There is collective ownership of property; No member is allowed to own a private property; Members of a communal society share common culture and identity; The means of exchange is trade by barter; Everybody has the spirit of co-operation; they help each other in building houses, on the farm etc; Labour is not sold and there is absence of exploitation; It promotes collective interest and discourages individual objectives; The community is allowed to operate at full autonomy… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

LEGITIMACY The word legitimacy is derived from the Latin word ‘legitimus’, which means lawful or according to law. In government, it means the acceptance of the political system by the people in compliance with the laid down rules and regulations.   A government is considered to be legitimate if it has come into office through a general recognized and acceptable means such as a free and fair election. It also means the support of the people toward a government in power, since the stability of government depends largely on popular support from the people.   Factors that affect Legitimacy Leadership: when a leader performs very well, the people accept his regime as a legitimate one.   Common National Symbols: the existence of common national symbols like the National Anthem, Pledge, National Flag, Coat of Arms, National Passport etc encourages legitimacy. The observance of national holidays and acceptance of common heroes… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS IN GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

POWER Power is the ability to control the actions of others irrespective of their wishes. It is the ability to enforce decisions or command through the possession of means of sanctions. It seeks to compel people to obey rules. Sanctions or punishments are often applied for non-compliance.   Forms of power Political power: this is the type of power that is exercised by the government in the running of the affairs of the state. Decisions made through this type of power are binding on the state. Power resides in the three arms of government and is derived from the constitution. Physical power: this type is often referred to as naked power. It involves the use of force to compel people to obey. The police, security services etc use this type of power and it often times may cause pain, injury or death. Military power: military power can be used to… Read More »BASIC CONCEPTS OF GOVERNMENT

Government (Secondary School)

FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

FEATURES OF GOVERNMENT Government as an Institution has the following characteristics: Power: Power enables the government to influence the citizens and execute its policies. Power is a basic tool for maintaining law and order. Law: This refers to the body of rules that regulate the conduct of the people. It is called the constitution. It defines the rights and obligations of the citizens and functions of the government. Revenue: Government has to generate funds to carry out its policies. This is done by imposition of import duties and collection of taxes. Personnel: This refers to the able-bodied men and women who help the government to run its affairs. They include the public servants, judges, police, etc. Public support: No government can survive without public support. The government needs the support of the public to function properly as public support confers legitimacy and right to rule on government. Welfare services: Government… Read More »FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

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