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Government (Secondary School)

THE SECOND REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1979

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND General Murtala Mohammed came to power in 1975 and he promised to return the country to a civil rule after long years of military rule that started on January 15, 1966. But General Mohammed did not live to fulfill his promise. It was his deputy Lt.GeneralOlusegunObasanjo who made the promise a reality. This started with the establishment in 1975 of the Constitution Drafting Committee consisted of 49 members. THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE SECOND REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1979 The constitution rejected the Parliamentary System and introduced the Presidential System. It was headed by an executive president who acted as both the head of state and head of government. The president was directly elected by the electorate in a general election. The president appointed his ministers outside the legislature subject to the confirmation by the senate. The president and the vice can be removed from office by impeachment. There… Read More »THE SECOND REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1979

Government (Secondary School)

THE FIRST REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1963

FEATURES OF THE REPUBLIC AN CONSTTITUTION OF 1963 Nigeria obtained a Republican Constitution of 1963 and some changes were introduced by the constitutions. It enthroned a Republican Constitution in Nigeria. Queen of England was no longer head of state. The Queen was replaced with the president who became Head of State and Commander –in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The president to be elected by secret ballot of the joint session of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. Supreme Court replaced Privy Council as highest court of appeal in Nigeria. It strengthened the Fundamental Human Rights. It abolishes the Judicial Service Commission and made the prime minister the sole appointee of judges. The Prime Minister’s office strengthened with the departure of the Governor General. The office of the Governors at the regional level ceases, while the premiers assumed total executive government powers. The director of public prosecution was brought under… Read More »THE FIRST REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1963

Government (Secondary School)

INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960

MAIN FEATURES AND PROVISIONS OF INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960 The constitution retained the federal structure initially adopted by the Lyttleton’s Constitution of 1954. Governors-General became Ceremonial Head of State for the Queen of England. It adopted the parliamentary system of government in Nigeria. There was a bicameral legislature for the federal and regional House of Assemblies. Executive power was granted to the prime minister and premiers. The senate was given power over money and other bills. Dual government powers existed at federal and regional government. The constitution embodied Fundamental Human Rights of citizens. It adopted a right approach to constitutional amendments. Federal legislatures had power to make laws during period of emergency. Provisions for Nigerian citizenship were copiously detailed in the constitution. The process for appointing Supreme Court and high court judges through the advice of the judicial service commission.   EVALUATION QUESTIONS Why the 1960 constitution was named Independence… Read More »INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960

Government (Secondary School)

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

LONDON COSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE This conference was convened to discuss issues surrounding the 1954 Lyttleton’s constitution. The outcome of the Constitutional Conference of 1957 includes the following; The Eastern and Western region to be granted self-government immediately after the conference. The North would become independent in 1959. The office of the prime minister of the federation to be created. Eastern region to have a house of chief in line with what obtained in the Northern and Western regions. At the Central Legislature a house of senate to be created making it a bicameral legislature. Southern Cameroon to be made a region with appointment of a premier. Membership of the Federal House of Representative to be enlarged from 184 to 320 at the expiration of its term. Election into Federal and regional legislatures for the East, West, Lagos and Southern Cameroon should be by universal adult suffrage, but election into the northern… Read More »CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Government (Secondary School)

LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION OF 1954

FEATURES OF LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION The resultant defects of MacPherson’s constitution gave rise to two constitutional conferences in 1953 and 1954, the first in London and the other in Lagos. Far reaching conclusions were agreed on concerning the structuring of Nigeria federation, the status of Lagos as a Natural Federal Unit.   In October 1954 Lyttleton’s Constitution came into effect and the main features and important changes made by it were as follows; It was the first federal constitution adopted by Nigeria. The lieutenant governors of the various regions became known as Governors. The governor was known as Governor-General of the federation of Nigeria. Establishment of the office of the speakers and Deputy speaker of the regional legislatures except the North. Regionalization of the public service, marketing boards and the judiciary. Establishment of the office of the regional premier. Regional legislatures were given law making powers. Reduction in numbers of both… Read More »LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION OF 1954

Government (Secondary School)

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

THE MCPHERSON CONSTITUTION OF 1951 The weakness of the Richard’s Constitution and the imperial powers due to anti- colonial activities, and the de- mystification of white superiority lead to the introduction of a new constitution. Sir John Macpherson became Governor of Nigeria in 1948. He reviewed the 1946 Constitution to avoid the mistake of Richard’s constitution. Constitutional conferences held in many parts of the country led to the formation of the Macpherson’s Constitution of 1951.   FEATURES OF MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION The central legislative council: It was renamed the House of Representatives. The president was the Governor and it had 6 ex- official members. 136 representative members were through the regional houses and 6 special members were nominated by the Governor. The North sent 68 members while the West and East had 34 members which made up the 136 representatives. The Central Executive Council: This was known as the council of… Read More »CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Government (Secondary School)

THE CLIFFORD’S CONSTITUTION OF 1922

FEATURES OF CLIFFORD CONSTITUTION Secretary of State for Colonies: This was a Cabinet minister in Britain and the Secretary of State for Colonies. All the colonial Governors report him. Head of State: This was Governor HughClifford. He represented the Queen of England. The Executive Council: It was an all European Council. No Nigerian was a member The Legislative Council: Membership was 46, 27 were officials, 19 were unofficial members. 10 out of the 19 were Nigerians. Out of the 10, 4 were elected, 3 from Lagos, 1 from Calabar. The remaining 6 were appointed by the governor to represent other parts of the country. The Northern Protectorate was not part of this council. Proclamation: The North was governed by proclamation from the Governor. Elective Principle: For the first time elections were to be conducted into the Legislative Council Political Activities: There was political activities and formation of political parties especially… Read More »THE CLIFFORD’S CONSTITUTION OF 1922

Government (Secondary School)

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

THE NIGERIA COUNCIL OF 1914 The Council was created in 1914 after the amalgamation by Lord Luggard. It consisted of 24 official and 12 unofficial member of which were Europeans and the rest were Nigeria Traditional Rulers .The Council was an advisory body without any power of legislation. It was a medium for public opinion. In 1922, sir hugs Clifford succeeded Lord Luggard as governor of Nigeria and he abolished the Nigerian council. He set up a Legislative Council for the Southern Nigeria. The North was to be governed by proclamation from the Governor.   EVALUATION QUESTION Explain the composition of the Nigeria council of 1914   THE NATIONAL CONGRESS OF BRITISH WEST AFRICA (NCBWA) The National Council of British West Africa was formed in 1920 by Joseph CaselyHayford of Gold Coast (Ghana and Dr. Akinwade Savage of Nigeria. The group had members from the four West Africa Colonies-Ghana, Gambia,… Read More »CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

Government (Secondary School)

NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA II

FACTORS THAT LED TO THE RISE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALIST MOVEMENT EXTERNAL FACTORS The Atlantic Charter: The publication at the end of the 2nd World war, declared the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live. The American government favored decolonization and this encouraged nationalist to demand for independence. Anti-colonial Posture of U.N.O: The organization adopted a negative posture towards colonialism and imperialism. It assisted nations fighting for independence and this revive the spirit of nationalism in the people of West Africa. British Labour Party: The labour party in Britain opposed the conservative party on their policy on colonialism. This influenced nationalism in Nigeria. The Independence of Some Countries: India in 1947 and Ghana in 1957 got their independence and this increased the agitation of Nigerian nationalists. Activities of Pan- African leaders/ Organizations: The impact of prominent individuals and black American leaders and… Read More »NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA II

Government (Secondary School)

NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA

Nationalism may be defined as the efforts made by Africans to oppose or reject colonial rule. It is the love and pride in a country shown by its people or the desire by a racial group to form an independent country. It could also be seen as a sense of oneness that emerges from social groups trying to control their destiny, environment and to defend their group against competing groups.   EVALUATION QUESTION What is nationalism? Mention five names of nationalists in Nigeria.   FEATURES OF NATIONALISM BEFORE SECOND WORLD WAR Western Education: Western education provided a common language with which West Africa used to fight colonialism. World Depression: The First World War caused World economic depression which brought about untold hardships and agitation for self government. Economic Exploitation: Monopoly of trade in West Africa by European firms or companies and its exploitation gave rise to the growth of nationalism.… Read More »NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA

Government (Secondary School)

COLONIALISM IN AFRICA

POSITIVE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM Military and Technical Aid: Some formal colonial territories especially the French territories, received military and technical aid from their former colonial masters. Development of political parties: One of the positive impacts of colonialism was the development of Political Parties. These political parties facilitated the struggle for political independence. Common Language: Colonialism promoted the development of common languages among colonial territories: English by those colonized by Britain and French by those colonized by France. Uniform Civil Service: The civil service was developed along with that of the British and the French system. Common Legal System: There was the development of a common legal system among the colonial territory. Development of Infrastructure: Facilities such as roads, railway and electricity were developed to ensure effective administration. Emergence of New Elites: Colonialism led to the development of a new set of elites based on educational achievement and political exposure. Exposure… Read More »COLONIALISM IN AFRICA

Government (Secondary School)

ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ACHIVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

ACHIEVEMENTS OF OPEC The organization has created a forum where member states can resolve their problems. The organization has put the activities of multi-national companies to check. The common fund established by the organization has helped to reduce the financial problems of the members. The organization has encouraged member states to take part in oil exploration. OPEC has succeeded to some extent in regulating production of oil and raising the prize of oil in recent time.   PROBLEMS OF OPEC The issue of quota: Member states do not abide by the directives of the organization on oil quota. The discovery of North sea oil and the competition is a great threat to prize stabilization. Oil storage: The rate at which some developed countries are storing crude oil, is a great threat to OPEC. Frequent international crisis has affected the prize of oil. e.g the Gulf war (1990-1991). Economic depression worldwide… Read More »ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ACHIVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

Government (Secondary School)

ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ORIGIN, AIMS, OBJECTIVES, ORGANS

ORIGIN OF OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (0PEC) , comprises of 13 third world petroleum producing countries , formed in 1960 to promote and protect the interest of its members. OPEC as an organization was formed as a reaction to the exploitative motives of multinational companies, which as at that time were controlling oil operation in the oil producing countries in 1960. Five oil producing countries met in Baghdad the capital of Iraq to form a union that will fight against the exploitative tendencies of multinational companies. The five countries that held the meeting were; Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Some other countries later joined the organization because of its effort in curtailing the activities of the oil companies. Countries like Algeria (1969), Nigeria (1971), Gabon and United Arab Emirate (1973), joined the organization. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OPEC was established so as to stabilize price of oil… Read More »ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) | ORIGIN, AIMS, OBJECTIVES, ORGANS

Government (Secondary School)

ECONOMIC COMMUINTY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS) | ACHIEVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

ACHIEVEMENTS OF ECOWAS The body has removed all customs duties in the areas of importation and exportation of goods within the sub-region. Member states cooperate in the areas of sports and culture. ECOWAS has helped to unite the people of member nations irrespective of the differences in ideology, beliefs and so on. Formation of ECOMOG: ECOMOG was formed through ECOWAS to help maintain peace in the sub-region and it helped to restore democracy in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Member states of ECOWAS spoke against Apartheid in South Africa and neo-colonialism. The organization helped in removing all administrative restrictions on trade within the sub-region. Member states mediate in disputes among states, e.g. Nigeria and Chad, Liberia, Sierra Leone and so on. The body has eliminated obstacles to movements of persons, services and capital within the sub-region. See also: UNITED NATION ORGANIZATION | ORIGIN, PRINCIPLES, AIMS & OBJEVTIVES PROBLEMS OR WEAKNESSES OF… Read More »ECONOMIC COMMUINTY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS) | ACHIEVEMENTS & PROBLEMS

Government (Secondary School)

ECONOMIC COMMUINITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS).

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was created by the Treaty in Lagos, Nigeria, on 28th May, 1975. It was created to promote economic trade, national cooperation and monetary union, for growth and development throughout West Africa. The administrative headquarters of the community is located in Abuja, while the fund raising headquarters is located in Lome, Togo. The establishment of the organization was masterminded by General Yakubu Gowon of Nigeria and President Eyadema of Togo. There are currently 15 member countries in the Economic Community of West African States. The founding members of ECOWAS were : Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania (left 2002), Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Burkina Faso ( which joined as Upper Volta). Cape Verde joined in 1977.   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF ECOWAS To promote cooperation and integration in all fields of economic activities. To raise… Read More »ECONOMIC COMMUINITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS).

Government (Secondary School)

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF THE U.N.O | PURPOSES, ACHIEVEMENTS, PROBLEMS

PURPOSES OF THE AGENCIES OF U.N.O To reduce international conflicts: The establishment of this agencies has helped to a very large extend in reducing international conflicts to the barest minimum. International interests: Another purpose for setting up these agencies is to integrate the interest of the various nations. To promote World peace: The establishment of these special agencies is to bring about World peace through the sharing of common interest by these agencies. To bring nations together: These agencies were set up with the believe that it would go beyond national boundaries and harmonizes interest of diverse nature. Creation of a World community: These agencies have the purpose of bringing the World together to become a World community devoid of war and conflicts.   ACHIEVEMENTS OF U.N.O Contribution to International Security: The U.N. has so far succeeded in averting war at World wide dimension. Although war has not been completely… Read More »SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF THE U.N.O | PURPOSES, ACHIEVEMENTS, PROBLEMS

Government (Secondary School)

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF U.N.O | ILO, W.H.O, F.A.O., UNESCO, UNICEF & I.M.F

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF U.N.O Specialized agencies are bodies that are independent which exist under the umbrella of the U.N.O. These agencies are given special assignments which help U.N.O. to achieve its aims and objectives. The activities of these specialized agencies are coordinated and supervised by the min organ of the U.N.O. called the Economic and Social Council. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION This agency was established 1919 by the League of Nations with headquarter in Geneva. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION Improvement of workers: It was established to help improve labour condition of workers Standard of living: It was established to raised the standard of living World wide. Promotion of economic and Social stability: It was formed to enhance the promotion of economic and Social stability. Child Labour: It campaigns against child labour and slavery. Research: It conducts extensive research in the field of power and vocational training. Celebrates Workers… Read More »SPECIALIZED AGENCIES OF U.N.O | ILO, W.H.O, F.A.O., UNESCO, UNICEF & I.M.F

Government (Secondary School)

UNITED NATIONS | GENERAL ASSEMBLY, SECURITY, TRUSTEESHIP, ECONOMIC & SOCIAL COUNCIL

ORGANS OF THE U.N.O The following are the organs of U.N.O The General Assembly. The Security Council. The Secretariat. The trusteeship Council. The international Court of Justice. The Economic and Social Council. The General Assembly The General Assembly is the central organ of the U.N.O. Its membership includes all member countries of the U.N.O. Each state is entitled to five representatives or delegation. The Assembly meets once in a year on regular session. The General Assembly has the power to deliberate on any matter that falls within the jurisdiction of the organization’s interest. On important matters, decisions are made by two –third of the members present to vote. Decisions on ordinary matters are reached by a simple majority. The chairmanship of the Assembly is held for one year and rotated among member-states. FUNCTIONS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY Deliberative function: It provides a forum for the discussion of world peace and… Read More »UNITED NATIONS | GENERAL ASSEMBLY, SECURITY, TRUSTEESHIP, ECONOMIC & SOCIAL COUNCIL

Government (Secondary School)

UNITED NATION ORGANIZATION | ORIGIN, PRINCIPLES, AIMS & OBJEVTIVES

Origin of U.N.O The United Nation Organization came into being on October 24, 1945 as a successor to the League of Nations, which collapsed as a result of the Second World War. The formation of the U.N.O. was led by the victorious powers, which were United Kingdom, America, Russia and China. The United Nation has its headquarters in New York, United States of America. Admission into the U.N.O is open to all peace loving countries.   The Principles of U.N.O Respect for the sovereign equality of all nations. Provision of military assistance to troubled states when it is called to do so. Promotion of democratic principles. Maintenance of international peace and security. The use of force in settling dispute should be discouraged. Peaceful settlement of disputes. Unity and cooperation among member nations.   Aims and Objectives of the U.N.O To maintain international peace and security. To settle disputes through peaceful… Read More »UNITED NATION ORGANIZATION | ORIGIN, PRINCIPLES, AIMS & OBJEVTIVES

Government (Secondary School)

COMMON WEALTH OF NATIONS | ORGANS, ACHIEVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS $ PROBLEMS

ORGANS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS The following are the organs of the Commonwealth of Nations and their functions. The Prime Minister’s Conference; The prime minister’s conference is the highest organ of the Commonwealth. This organ is composed of the Heads of State and government of member-states or their accredited representatives. Functions Approval of Budget: It is the sole responsibility of the Prime Minister’s of member-states to receive and approve the budget of the organization. Appointment of the Secretary-General: It is the body that appoints the Secretary-General of the organization. Discussion of Problems: The Prime ministers of member-states discuss issues, problems as they affect member states and give recommendations or solutions for such problems. Power of Sanction: The Prime minster of member-states has the power to sanction any member that does not adhere to the aims and objectives upon which the organization was established for example, Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth… Read More »COMMON WEALTH OF NATIONS | ORGANS, ACHIEVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS $ PROBLEMS

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