- This is a technology that involves the manipulation of the genotype of an organism to get the desired trait.
- It also involves the transfer of gene coding for the desired trait from one organism to another.
Application of Genetic Engineering
- Making of hormones e.g. Human insulin and human growth hormone.
- Enzymes e.g. Alph-Anti-Trypsin (AAT) used to treat emphysema. (c) Proteins.
- Drugs and vaccines.
- Transgenic animals and plants are produced which are also called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s).
- A variety of tomato with improved paste and a longer shell life.
- Sheep for producing desired proteins in milk.
- Plants resistant to pests and diseases.
- This is the making of identical copies of genes, DNA and whole organisms.
- Cloning is used in plants – that is tissue culture e.g. in development of various varieties of bananas and Eucalyptus trees.
- The first mammal to be cloned successfully was Dolly – the sheep.
- A nucleus from the cell obtained from the udder of the sheep was inserted in an unfertilized egg without a nucleus.
- This zygote was introduced into the uterus of a sheep and developed to full term.
- Involves injecting genes into patients of certain diseases e.g. Parkinson’s diseases.
- The injected gene alters metabolism to bring about the cure of the disease.