GENETIC ENGINEERING

Biology

GENETIC ENGINEERING

  • This is a technology that involves the manipulation of the genotype of an organism to get the desired trait.
  • It also involves the transfer of gene coding for the desired trait from one organism to another.

Application of Genetic Engineering

Pharmaceutical industries:

  • Making of hormones e.g. Human insulin and human growth hormone.
  • Enzymes e.g. Alph-Anti-Trypsin (AAT) used to treat emphysema. (c) Proteins.
  • Drugs and vaccines.
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Agricultural industries:

  • Transgenic animals and plants are produced which are also called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s).
  • A variety of tomato with improved paste and a longer shell life.
  • Sheep for producing desired proteins in milk.
  • Plants resistant to pests and diseases.

Cloning

  • This is the making of identical copies of genes, DNA and whole organisms.
  • Cloning is used in plants – that is tissue culture e.g. in development of various varieties of bananas and Eucalyptus trees.
  • The first mammal to be cloned successfully was Dolly – the sheep.
  • A nucleus from the cell obtained from the udder of the sheep was inserted in an unfertilized egg without a nucleus.
  • This zygote was introduced into the uterus of a sheep and developed to full term.
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Gene therapy

  • Involves injecting genes into patients of certain diseases e.g. Parkinson’s diseases.
  • The injected gene alters metabolism to bring about the cure of the disease.

See also:

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF GENETICS

MUTATIONS

LINKAGE

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE

STRUCTURE OF DNA

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