FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
Electronic machine which was distinct from mechanical computers evolved about 1945. UNIVAC is a good example of this generation of computers.
Computers of this generation were characterized by:
- They used Vacuum tubes.
- They were very large and expensive.
- They were very bulky.
- They had a low retentive memory.
- They generated a lot of heat.
Second generation computers were the replacement of vacuum tubes. Second generation computers utilized primary discrete TRANSISTORS. They had limited capability but were more advanced than the first generation computers.
- They were more reliable than the first generation.
- They could perform calculations.
- They had a more efficient storage facility.
- They generated lesser heat compared with the first generated computers.
Third generation computers utilized INTEGRATED CIRCUIT [ICs] technology, Small Scale Integration [SSI] with more sophisticated software capability like multi-programming, multi-processing and operating systems as resource managers.
The following can be noted in third generation computers:
- Faster input and output.
- Increased storage capability
- Increased process capability
- Ability to display pictures and musical sound
We have learnt that the first generation computers used vacuum tubes, second generation computers used TRANSISTORS while the third generation computers used integrated circuits.
- Mention the characteristics of first generation computers.
- What did the second generation make use of?
Fourth generation computers appeared at about 1975. The technologies that characterized these machines were LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (LSI) and VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI). The computers produced at this period were of a higher capability in terms of speed, storage and of superior performance over their counterparts of the third generation.
These generations of computers made use of ARTFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AL). This category of computer was built around the following objects.
- To build super computer i.e computers which could perform operation in the range of 10 billion instructions per seconds.
- They were designed to have capacities like sight and hearing as well as capability to stimulate human thoughts e.g robots.
We have learnt features of the fourth and fifth generations of computers i.e the fourth generation used Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) and ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AL)
- What did the fourth generation use?
- Fifth generation computers is built on what technology?
- The first generation uses …… as its circuitry.
- List four features of the second generation computer.
- What is the difference between AI and Expert system?
- VLSI means ……….
- Fourth generation computers made use of …………A. VLSI Transistors C. AI
- Fifth generation made use of ……………… A. AI Vacuum tubes. C. SSI
- ……..is an example of computers in the fifth generation Robort B. UNIVAC C. AI
- How many generations of computers do we have? 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 9
- The fourth generation of computers came on board in the year…….A. 1957 1975 C. 1997 D. 1990
- Give the full meaning of the following acronyms:
Explain the Fifth generation computers