FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR PARTS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

Biology

FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR PARTS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

  • The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
  • The CNS co-ordinates body activities by receiving impulses from sensory cells from different parts of the body.
  • It then sends the impulses to the appropriate effectors.
  • The brain is enclosed within the cranium or braincase.
  • It is covered and protected by membranes known as meninges.
  • When meninges are infected by bacterial or fungi they cause meningitis.
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The brain consists of the following parts:

Cerebrum.

  • This is the largest part of the brain.
  • It consists of two cerebral hemispheres.
  • It is highly folded in order to increase the surface area.
  • The cerebrum controls learning, intelligence, thought, imagination and reasoning.

The medulla oblongata (brain stem).

  • The medulla oblongata has centres which control breathing (ventilation) rate,
  • heart beat rate (cardiac frequency),
  • swallowing, salivation, blood pressure
  • temperature regulation, hearing, taste and touch.
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The cerebellum

  • Is located in front of the medulla and is a folded dorsal expansion of the hindbrain.
  • It controls posture movement and balance.

The hypothalamus

  • Controls functions such as body temperature and osmoregulation.

The pituitary gland

  • Is an endocrine organ that secretes a number of hormones which control osmoregulation, growth, metabolism and sexual development.
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Optic lobes -control the sense of sight.

Olfactory lobes -control the sense of smell.

See also:

NERVOUS SYSTEM

PRODUCTION OF AUXINS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH

RECEPTION, RESPONSE AND CO-ORDINATION IN PLANTS

BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES

EVOLUTION

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