FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR PARTS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN
- The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
- The CNS co-ordinates body activities by receiving impulses from sensory cells from different parts of the body.
- It then sends the impulses to the appropriate effectors.
- The brain is enclosed within the cranium or braincase.
- It is covered and protected by membranes known as meninges.
- When meninges are infected by bacterial or fungi they cause meningitis.
The brain consists of the following parts:
- This is the largest part of the brain.
- It consists of two cerebral hemispheres.
- It is highly folded in order to increase the surface area.
- The cerebrum controls learning, intelligence, thought, imagination and reasoning.
The medulla oblongata (brain stem).
- The medulla oblongata has centres which control breathing (ventilation) rate,
- heart beat rate (cardiac frequency),
- swallowing, salivation, blood pressure
- temperature regulation, hearing, taste and touch.
- Is located in front of the medulla and is a folded dorsal expansion of the hindbrain.
- It controls posture movement and balance.
- Controls functions such as body temperature and osmoregulation.
The pituitary gland
- Is an endocrine organ that secretes a number of hormones which control osmoregulation, growth, metabolism and sexual development.
Optic lobes -control the sense of sight.
Olfactory lobes -control the sense of smell.