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FIGURES OF SPEECH: SIMILE, METAPHOR, IRONY AND PERSONIFICATION

English Language

COMPREHENSION/ORAL SKILLS

ADVERTISING: Page 86-87 of the Effective English.

The passage discusses about two basic objectives advertising, which are: to inform the target audience about the product or service; and to create or stimulate demand for the product or service through persuasion. 

 

Evaluation

Answer the questions below the passage.

 

FIGURES OF SPEECH

Content:

  • Meanings
  • Kinds

Figures of speech are ways of creating imagery by using figurative language, through which we conjure the picture of two or more things into writing and thereby bringing out very aptly the quantity or idea we are presenting.

Examples:

 

SIMILE

A simile is that figure of speech in which a likeness is definitely or formally expressed. It is introduced by “like” “as” e.t.c.

Examples

He runs like a hare

Her cheeks appear as the dawn of day.

 

METAPHOR

It is a figure of speech founded on the resemblance. It is also used like simile to create a picture or images of events without using as or like.

Examples

The general, who is a lion in the field, has seen many wars.

He is no good at crickets, he has okro fingers.

 

PERSONIFICATION

It is the transfer of the quality of human being to animals and inanimate objects.

Examples

Let the floods clap their hands.

Confusion heard his voice.

IRONY

It is also a device by which a writer expresses a contrary meaning, which appears contrary to the stated or ostensible one.

Examples

Charles is so brilliant that he passed one subject out of his nine papers.

He is such a good keeper that he conceded ten goals in the first half of the match.

 

RHETORICAL QUESTIONS: This is a kind of question which requires no answer.

 

EVALUATION

Give one example for each of the figures of speech taught.

 

ESSAY WRITING (DESCRIPTIVE)

CONTENT

A descriptive essay is the one that requires you to write a description of, for example, an object, a person, an animal, an incident or scene.

 

Let us examine how a descriptive essay question like   the following one should be treated.

“Describe a rainy day you will live to remember

FORMAT

Describe the ordinary details of a rain

Describe the kind of rain it was and how long it lasted

State the effects of the rain: both the comfort which the rain brought and the inconveniences or damages it caused

Do not limit your consideration to the area where you live (urban or rural)

Show great imagination in your description

The presentation of the essay should be logically arranged. Describe incidents that took place in the morning before moving on to those that followed in the afternoon, then, later in the evening.

 

EVALUATION: Write an essay on the title “A rainy day I will live to remember”

 

READING ASSIGNMENT: Page 34 of Effective English

 

SPEECH WORK: DIPHTHONGS

CONTENT

Definition

Examples

We have eight diphthongs. They are two quality sounds. To realise their sounds, you must glide from the first to the second sound:

The eight diphthongs are these:

/ei/, /au/, /ai/, /эi/, /iƏ/, /eƏ/, /υƏ/

/ei/

Spelling variants and words examples are:

“a” – cake, brake, make, lake, plate,

“ai” – braid, sail,

“ay” – May, day

“au” – gauge,

“ey” – they, hey, prey

“ei” – rein, reign, heinous

“e” – ballet, brought, chalet

“ee” – fiancée, nee

“ea” – great, break, steak

/ Əυ/- The long sound for letter “o”

As in:

“au” – chauffeur, faults

“o” – go, rote, note

“eo” – hoe, foe

“oa” – goat, both, road

“ou” – grow, thrown

“ew” – sew, sewn

“oo” – brooch

/ai/

“ai” – aisle , naira

“ei” – height, either

“ey” – eye

“uy” – buy, guy

“ye” – bye, dye

“y” – Scythe, by, sky

“ie” – pie, tie, lie, die

/aυ/,

“ou” – doubt, count, stout, about,

“au” –Nassau

“ow” – how, cow, allow

/Ɔi/ as in

“oi”- boil, oil, noise

“oy” – boy, employ

“uoy” – buoy, buoyant

/iƏ/ as in

“e” – era, period

“ea” – idea, pear, beard

“ere” – here, mere

“eer” – peer, sheer

“ier”-  pier, weir

“ir” – fakir

/eƏ/ – as in

“ir” – air , fair, hair

“are” – care, fare, dare

“ear”- bear, tear, wear

“ere”- there, where

 

/uƏ/ as in

“u” – plural , during

“ure” – pure,  cure, sure

“our” – tour

“oor” moor, boor, poor

 

EVALUATION

Write two examples for each of the eight diphthongs

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/ REVISION QUESTIONS

From  the words lettered A to D, choose the word that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

  1. packet a. psychology  b. physics  c. pseudonym  d. sparkle
  2. tin a.  thin b. tent  c, then  d. hatch
  3. leagues a. lick   b. pleasures  c. people  d. learn
  4. hunt             a. hurt  b. hot  c. hoot  d. run
  5. sword             a. word  b. occasion  c. boys  d. pass

 

See also

KINDS OF SENTENCES

COMPREHENSION/ READING SKILLS

ESSAY WRITING

VERBS.

NOUN

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