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Agricultural Science

FARM MECHANIZATION (TRACTORIZATION)

Mechanization refers to the application of engineering principles and technology in agricultural production. It is the use of machines such as tractors, ploughs, harvesters, harrow, planter etc as well as the use of farm inputs such as insecticides, improved seeds, fertilizer etc.

 

The objective of mechanization is to:

  • reduce human labour (that is to reduce drudgery)
  • increase efficiency
  • save cost (on the long run)
  • save time
  • improve standard of living by improving quality and quantity of produce available.

 

ADVANTAGES OF FARM MECHANIZATION

  1. It ensures that farm operations are done and completed within a shortest possible time
  2. It saves labour that could otherwise be useful elsewhere.
  3. It reduces health hazards and accidents that can occur from using tools.
  4. It reduces drudgery.
  5. It encourages large scale farming hence increasing output.
  6. It promotes specialization of labour for example machines operators become specialists in the machines they handle.
  7. It increases cooperation among farmers such as enabling them put their resources together to buy machines and use them on rotational basis thereby making them united.
  8. It on the long run saveslabour cost, wastage, reduces errors and spoilage thereby leading to an increase in income (saved cost).

 

DISADVANTAGES OF FARM MECHANIZATION

  1. It involves huge capital investment.
  2. With mechanization very few workers are needed which renders other laborers unemployed.
  3. The movement of heavy duty machines on land leads to compaction of the soil.
  4. The smoke from exhaust of machines can cause air pollution.
  5. Due to small land holdings as a result of the system of land tenure, use of machinery is not encouraged (e.g communal land tenure).
  6. Continuous usage of machines on the soil tends to destroy the soil structure.
  7. Very few crops like maize, rice etc can be mechanized.

 

EVALUATION

  1. State five advantages of farm mechanization.
  2. State five disadvantages of farm mechanization.

 

LIMITATION OF FARM MECHANIZATION

  1. Inadequate spare parts.
  1. Farmers are generally poor, cannot afford to buy machines like tractors etc.
  2. There is inadequate technical know-how on how to operate and repair farm machines.
  1. As a result of small area of land cultivation, it is not economically advisable for farmers to use machines on their farm. This problem is created by land tenure system.
  1. Seasonality of farm operation: Machines may be left unused because of seasonality nature of farming.
  2. Uneven land terrain makes it difficult to operate farm machines.
  3. Inadequate storage and processing facilities discourages large scale production.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Define mechanization
  2. Outline five problems of farm mechanization in Nigeria

 

PROSPECTS OF MECHANIZATION

  1. Farmers should be educated to accept modern system of mechanization.
  2. Provision of loans to enable farmers to purchase farm machines.
  3. Farmers should pool their resources together to buy farm machines.
  4. Land tenure system should be reviewed to make land available for farming.
  5. Simple and less expensive machines should be developed for farmer to acquire.
  6. There should be engineering personnel trained to work on machines.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Outline five factors limiting farm mechanization in Nigeria.
  2. What are the possible ways of improving agriculture through mechanization.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. What is mechanization?
  2. Outline five problems of agricultural mechanization.
  3. State five advantages and disadvantages of farm mechanization.
  4. State five limitations of farm mechanization.
  5. State five possible ways of improving agriculture through mechanization.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of farm mechanization? A. Carrying out many farm operations with ease B. Displacing many farm workers C. Exposing soil to direct effect of sunlight D. polluting the environment
  2. In which of the following operationscan a tractorbe effectively used for? A.Fertilization B.Harvesting C.PloughingD.Stumping
  3. Mechanization in West Africa is limited by the following except?A. Size of farm holdings B. Technical Knowhow C. Capital D. Labor
  4. Which of the following gives the correct order of usage of tillage implements in a virgin land A. Harrow Plough RidgerB. Harrow RidgerPloughC.Ridger Plough Harrow
  1. Plough Harrow Ridger
  1. Which crop is best cultivated by mechanical means?A.Cassava B.Cocoa C.Maize D.Oil palm

 

THEORY

  1. What is mechanization?
  2. State four advantages and disadvantages each of mechanization in agriculture.

 

See also

FARM POWER

SIMPLE FARM TOOLS

PROBLEMS OF FARM MANAGER

MANAGEMENT

FACTORSOFPRODUCTION (MANAGEMENT)

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