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Family Improvement

Catering, Home economics, Home management

HEALTHY FEEDING AND EATING PRACTICES

MEANING OF FEEDING HABITS Feeding or eating habits are your everyday patterns of eating. It involves the tendency to reach out for foods whenever you are hungry. These habits vary from one person to another and from one locality to another. But it is good to maintain healthy feeding habit by choosing foods which are nourishing and properly prepared. Healthy feeding habit results from choosing nutritious food in a conscious way.   HEALTHY FEEDING PRACTICES   Eat a variety of foods. Eat food from all the food groups Balance the food you eat with physical activity Always eat three balanced meals every day Eat regularly and do not skip meals Choose nutritious foods in a conscious way Choose diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits Choose a diet that is moderate in sugar Make use of food in season Choose diet that is moderate in salt and sodium Choose… Read More »HEALTHY FEEDING AND EATING PRACTICES

Catering, Home economics, Home management

GOOD POSTURE AND EXERCISE

DEFINITION AND MEANING OF GOOD POSTURE Posture means keeping the natural balance of the body aligned. It is the way the body parts are help up or carried when we walk, stand, sit or work. In good posture, the back is kept straight, shoulders pull well, back and hand held high. IMPORTANCE OF GOOD POSTURE Good posture enhances appearance It gives the body a comfortable and relaxed feeling It promotes good health Good posture gives dignity, self-confidence and respect It allows fitness of clothes.   GOOD READING POSTURE Use a good table and chair of comfortable height Let the chair provides support for your hips and lower back Do not bend too low towards the book Keep the legs under the table and hands comfortably on the table.   GOOD STANDING POSTURE Always stand firmly in both feet so that both of them can carry your weight Do not place… Read More »GOOD POSTURE AND EXERCISE

Catering, Home economics, Home management

THE TEETH, HANDS AND FEET

Human beings grow two sets of teeth. The first is the milk or temporary teeth (during childhood) These are 24 in number. They loosen and fall out. They are replaced by the permanent teeth (in adulthood). The permanent teeth are usually 32 in number.   Structure of the Teeth The crown: the part of the tooth projecting above the gum The root: the part buried in the jaw-bone The neck: the space between the crown and the root The dentine: the tough centre of the tooth which surrounds and protects the pulp cavity The pulp cavity: contains blood vessels and nerves The enamel: a very hard substance which covers the crown of the teeth.   TYPES OF TEETH AND THEIR FUNCTIONS The incisors; these are in the center of the front of the jaw. They are used for cutting off lumps of food. They are usually eight in number. The… Read More »THE TEETH, HANDS AND FEET

Catering, Home economics, Home management

STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN

The skin is the outer covering of the body. It performs very important function, it is necessary to understand the structure of the skin and how to take care of it. The skin is made up of two main layers, viz: The Epidermis: this is the outer layer; it has no blood vessel or nerves. It is covered with hair and tiny holes called sweat pores. Sweat passes out through the pores. The Dermis: this is the inner layer of the skin. It is made up of the following: Sweat gland which produce sweat Oil gland which produces oil that keeps the skin and hair soft and fresh. Blood vessels and nerves which keep the skin healthy and help it to perform its functions Fat deposit which reduce heat loss from the body.   FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN It protects the body from bacterial infection (germs), poor weather and injury… Read More »STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN

Catering, Home economics, Home management

NOSE AND EAR

THE NOSE AND EAR The nose is the organ of smell. The very top of the nose consists of bone. The rest is made of cartilage, small muscles and skin lined with a fine moist mucous membrane. The lining of the membrane contains small glands which produce watery secretion. The secretion keeps the lining moist.  The nose is divided into two nostrils by a partition called septum. The nerves of smell which run from the nose to the brain are called olfactory nerves there are tiny hairs at the entrance of the nose. They act as filters for the air that goes to the lungs. FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE It is the sense organ of smell It acts as a passage or channel through which the air we breathe passes in and out of the lungs The air entering the lungs is filtered and warmed by the tiny hairs at… Read More »NOSE AND EAR

Catering, Home economics, Home management

THE HUMAN BODY

SRUCTURES, PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY The human body is made up of different parts. Some parts are inside the body while others are outside. Some parts of the body are the head, eyes, nose, ears, teeth, skin, hands, fingers, nails and feet.   THE HAIR AND THE EYES Each hair grows from a narrow tube in the skin called hair  follicle. Each follicle has a tiny oil gland near its base. The gland produces oil that lubricates the hair and softens the skin around it.   FUNCTIONS OF THE HAIR it protects the head it keeps the head warm in cold weather it improves personal appearance and adds beauty to a person   WAYS OF CARING FOR THE HAIR The hair can be cared for by: Washing or shampooing the hair frequently. Short hair can be washed daily while long hair can be washed at least once… Read More »THE HUMAN BODY

Catering, Home economics, Home management

HOME ECONOMICS AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

CAREERS IN HOME ECONOMICS Foods and Nutrition: Nutritionist Food technologist Dieticians Caterers Bakers Food researchers Home Management: Home keepers Welfare workers Teachers Interior decorator Researchers Counsellors Laundry specialist. Clothing and Textiles Dress makers Cloth retailers Fashion designers Stylist Embroidery maker.   HOME ECONOMICS CAREER REQUIREMENTS Home economics careers require education at different levels of education. Home economics is offered as a single subject at the Basic Education level (Basic 1-9 / Primary and Junior Secondary School) At the Senior Secondary level, it is offered as three different subjects foods and nutrition, clothing and textiles and home management. At tertiary level, it is offered a single subject but needs certain subject requirements for admission into these institutions: college of education, Polytechnics and Universities. Evaluation: mention 5 areas of home Economics mention 5 importance of home economics. Assignment List three requirements for admitting students into home economics department in the higher institutions… Read More »HOME ECONOMICS AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Catering, Home economics, Home management

INTRODUCTION TO HOME ECONOMICS

DEFINITIONS OF HOME-ECONOMICS Home-economics can also be defined as a field of study which teaches us how to manage ourselves, our resources and our household. It therefore deals with the management of material and non-material things in the family e.g people, money, food e.t.c. Home-economics can be define as the study of cooking, sewing, laundry and all matters relating to the management of the home. AREAS OF HOME ECONOMICS Foods and nutrition Clothing and textiles Home management Child development Family living FOODS AND NUTRITION: this deals with the study of food and nutrients, it include food processing, preservation, preparation, management and service e.t.c. It also prepares people for employment in foods and nutrition related jobs. CLOTHING AND TEXTILES: deals with textiles, designing and sewing of clothes. It also include wise selection of clothes, personal hygiene and good grooming. HOME MANAGEMENT deals with the processes of using those things (resources) which… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO HOME ECONOMICS

Catering, Home economics, Home management

CLOTHIING STORAGE

METHODS OF STORING FAMILY CLOTHING Family clothing can be stored in the following storage spaces: A wardrobe or closet A box, suitcase, bags A chest of drawers or shelves.   WARDROBE OR CLOSET Storing clothes in the wardrobe with the use of good quality plastic hangers is the best method of storing clothes. Some wardrobe units consist of a section for hanging clothes, a section with shelves for folded clothes, the bottom part for shoes, the top having fitted doors for storing suit cases and boxes. Wardrobes prevent clothes from creasing and help them to maintain their original shape.   GUIDELINES FOR STORING CLOTHES IN WARDROBE/CLOSET Keep the wardrobe clean regularly and away from ants, cockroaches and house hold pests Put camphor balls on the wardrobe to keep away cockroaches and ants Use good quality hangers to hang clothes. Do not use metal or iron made hangers Do not overcrowd… Read More »CLOTHIING STORAGE

CLOTHIING REPAIRS

Garments repair involves two methods. They are darning and patching. DARNING: Darning is a method of repairing or mending thin pieces and small holes in garments. This process involves weaving strong thread into the material to replace or strengthen worn threads. Darning can be done with machines or by hand. STEPS TO FOLLOW WHEN USING DARNING Choose thread which matches the fabric in terms of colour, thickness and texture Work darn on wrong side of the fabric Use fine darning needle Draw the edges of the tear together with herringbone stitch Darn along the selvedge first Leave loops at the ends of each other row to allow for shrinkage Sew round the hole and over the thin areas.   TYPES OF DARNING Darning a hole/tear Stocking dams Hedge tear darn   PATCHING Patching is a method of replacing worn areas of fabric with strong pieces of materials. It will look… Read More »CLOTHIING REPAIRS

Catering, Home economics, Home management

CARE OF FAMILY CLOTHING AND HOUSEHOLD LINEN

Household linen is a term used collectively to include a variety of textile articles used in the home. A good supply of household linen is a very necessary item in the home; they are expensive and require good care.   TYPES OF HOUSEHOLD LINEN AND THEIR USES CURTAINS AND DRAPERIES: These are fabrics or materials used for decorating our doors and windows. Curtains can be light or heavy, opaque or transparent. Uses of Curtains and Draperies They shade the room from excessive light and wind. They beautify the room by adding colour to it. They provide privacy for family. They establish the character and mood of a room.   BED LINEN: Includes all the different types of fabrics materials used to make the bed. They are: Mattress covers used for covering the mattress in order to protect it from dust and dirt Bed sheets used for making the bed Pillow… Read More »CARE OF FAMILY CLOTHING AND HOUSEHOLD LINEN

Catering, Home economics, Home management

FLOWER ARRANGEMENT

USES OF FLOWER IN THE FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF THE HOME Flowers add beauty to the room and also provide a pleasing atmosphere Flowers give soothing effect to the room Flowers give sweet fragrance all the time Flowers are pleasing to the eyes, refresh our body and mind Flowers do not only create aesthetic sense but spruce up the place they are used at. Flowers cheer up the emotions and express love for every member of the family.   SOME COMMON FLOWERS Hibiscus Pride of Barbados Marigold Bougainvillea Lilies Rose Alamanda Chrysanthemum Queen of the night Bachelor’s buttons Zinnia Forget-me-not   TYPES OF FLOWER ARRANGEMENT There are different types of flower arrangements, which are suitable for different places and occasions. Some of them are: Horizontal arrangement for dining and ceremonial high tables Oral arrangements for large space Crescent arrangement for dining tables Circular arrangement for large space Vertical arrangement for narrow… Read More »FLOWER ARRANGEMENT

Catering, Home economics, Home management

MAINTENANCE OF THE FAMILY HOUSE

MATERIALS NEEDED FOR HOUSEHOLD MAINTENANCE Broom Brushes Dusters Mops Dust pans Dust bins Pails Buckets Carpet sweeper Vacuum cleaner.   GUIDELINES FOR HOUSEHOLD MAINTENANCE GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR HOUSEHOLD MAINTENANCE Always set apart sometimes for daily, weekly and seasonal cleaning of the house. Use the correct house cleaning materials or agents for specific surfaces e.g. abrasives like vim for scouring bath tubes. Use house and vacuum cleaning equipment such as mops, brooms cleaners properly. Store house cleaning equipment and materials properly and out of reach of children. Each surface or object should be given the correct cleaning treatment. Household waste should be properly dispose off on daily basis. Always clean the surrounding of the houses clean by cutting the hedge and grasses and bay not allowing stagnant waters around the house/   DAILY CLEANING OF SITTING ROOM Open the doors and windows to air the room. Sweep the floor and reach… Read More »MAINTENANCE OF THE FAMILY HOUSE

Catering, Home economics, Home management

THE FAMILY HOUSE

Family house is a place usually a building where family members live together as one. In any family house, there are different rooms or areas. Each room or area is usually used for different purposes or activities or functions. The rooms or areas of the family house that are furnished and used for different functions are called the functional rooms or areas of the house.. The functional areas are: Sitting room Bedroom Dining room Kitchen Bathroom Toilet. Guest room. Pantry/ store.   SITTING ROOM OR LIVING ROOM Uses It is used as a relaxation centre for family members. It is used for receiving and entertaining visitors Part of it can used as dining area. Family pictures and other precious collections can be displayed there It can be used for social activities, such as parties, meetings, e.t.c. Sitting room furniture A set of settee or chairs, these are available in different… Read More »THE FAMILY HOUSE

Catering, Home economics, Home management

MEANING OF A HOME MAKER

A home maker is someone who is responsible for the proper management of the home. A home maker can either be a man or a woman but mostly, a home maker is always a woman. The job of a home maker comes with no salary, benefits or vacation time however; it is one of the most valuable jobs in many families.   Home makers can also be define as women and men who organizes and perform duties of family household. These tasks include child care, cooking, cleaning, e.t.c.   RESPONSIBILITIES OF A HOME MAKER He/she is responsible for taking proper care of the home. He/she is responsible for taking care of the children. He/she is responsible for cleaning the house He/she cooks for the family He/she serves as role model to the children He/she teaches the children good morals He/she make sure the children are well behaved. He/she is responsible… Read More »MEANING OF A HOME MAKER

Catering, Home economics, Home management

SEWING MACHINE | FAULTS, CAUSES AND REMEDIES

SEWING MACHINE FAULTS, CAUSES AND REMEDIES FAULTS  CAUSES REMEDIES 1. Upper thread breaking Machine not properly threaded, needle bent or blunt Thread machine properly check the machine needle and change it if bent or blunt. 2. Lower thread breaking i)Tension too tight ii) Improper threading of button case of shuttle. Check / regulate the tension, thread the bobbin case properly. 3. Breaking needle Using the needle on heavy Use appropriate / correct size of needle, check bent / blunt needle. 4. Skipping Stitches Needle too small for the thread, needle not accurately set into the needle jar, needle bent or blunt. Use accurate or correct size of needle, set the needle properly unto the needle bar. 5. Noisy Treadle If the treadle is noisy, the crew on which it is piloted is loose. Tighten the crew 6. Machine work heavily The machine belt maybe too tight, the machine is gummed… Read More »SEWING MACHINE | FAULTS, CAUSES AND REMEDIES

Catering, Home economics, Home management

THE SEWING MACHINE

The sewing machine is major sewing equipment. It is very important in successful sewing. There are different types and makes of sewing machines. The following are common types of sewing machines. HAND SEWING MACHINE: This is a simply, it is operated just with hand. It requires to be placed on a table. TREADLE SEWNG MACHINE: This is operated with the feet. The worker has both hands free for guiding the work. It normally has a special stand. ELECTRIC SEWING MACHINE: This is operated with to aid of an electric motor. PARTS OF A SEWING MACHINE   PART FUCTIONS 1. Balance wheel i) It is turned either forward or backward to machine sew. ii) It rises and loners the needle. 2. Foot presser It holds the fabrics firmly in place for stitching 3. Presser foot lifter It is uses to raise and loner the presser foot, it is at the back… Read More »THE SEWING MACHINE

Catering, Home economics, Home management

DRESSES FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS

DRESSES FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS School clothes Clothes for office work Clothes for household work or activities Clothes for sleeping Clothes for sports, picnics and relaxation Clothes for religious worship Clothes for travelling (journey / trips). SCHOOL CLOTHES Fabric for school clothes should be dirable, washable colourful and comfortable. He style should be loose enough to allow for school activities and it should be simple. Shoes should be dirable, comfort and easy to clean. CLOTHES FOR OFFICE WORK The cloth should be comfortable, smart and simple. Fabrics should be easy to clean / washable. Over dressing should be avoided. Only simple accessories are needed. Clothed should not be too tight or revealing. Clothes should be discreet. Make – ups should be applied lightly. Dress and shoes should be avoided. CLOTHES FOR HOUSEHOLD WORK OR ACTIVITIES It is very important to dress neatly even when working at home. Clothing for household activities… Read More »DRESSES FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS

Catering, Home economics, Home management

THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF DESIGN OF FABRICS

THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF DESIGN The basic elements of designs are LINE: This refers to the outline of an object or to the obvious lines within it. SHAPE: This refers to the form of a solid object, which is created when lines are combined. The outline of a garment is its shape. SPACE: This refers to the three dimensional area that is to be designed. It is the entire area within a garment. TEXTURE: This is the way the surface of a fabric looks and feels. COLOUR: This is one of the most important elements. It has many visual effects and its own language. COLOUR WHEEL This is an arrangement of colours in a circle to show how they are related. The primary colours: They are red, yellow and blue. The secondary colours: They are orange, green and purple/ violet. Tertiary colours: These are six, and each is a blend… Read More »THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF DESIGN OF FABRICS

Catering, Home economics, Home management

CARE AND HANDLING OF DIFFERENT FABRICS

Reasons for care of clothing To make the clothing last longer. Dirt can damage fabrics To kill any disease-carrying germs and pests in the fabrics To keep the clothes looking clean or better, dirty clothes are unpleasant to look at To save money since clean clothes last longer To ensure that whatever clothes you have will be available for wearing anytime. LAUNDRY AGENTS AND EQUIPMENT Water; used for soaking, washing and rinsing clothes. Soaps and detergents; to lower the surface tension of water, remove certain stains, kill carrying germs in fabrics. Bleaches; make white cotton and linen fabrics whiter, remove certain stains, kill disease carrying germs in fabric. Stiffening agents; to stiffen cotton and linen fabrics, to give the fabrics a smooth surface and fresh look Stain removers; to remove stains from fabrics. LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS Equipment and tools for collecting dirty clothes; these include linen baskets or bins,… Read More »CARE AND HANDLING OF DIFFERENT FABRICS

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