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Agricultural Science

Production is rhe process of combining and converting input to give rise to output. This process is aided by Land, Labour, Capital and Management (Entrepreneurship) all otherwise referred to as factors of production. So therefore factors of production are the resources that ensure the production of goods in agriculture.

 

Land refers to where productive activities such as growing of crops, rearing of animals and establishment of farmstead, e.t.c are carried out.it is the most important asset of the farmer. Land for agricultural production can be acquired in the following ways

Purchase: out rightly buying the land and assuming full ownership.

Lease/Rent: paying the land owner (individual/government) a stipulated amount to gain access to using the land for a stipulated time.

Gift

Inheritance

 

Land is limited in supply (its amount cannot be increased in a geographical area) and thus its availability for agricultural practise is largely dependent on

Population growth (the more the people, the less the available land for agricultural

practices)

Land tenure system: this refers to the way in which land is acquired.

 

Topography

Ecological and fertility status of the soil.

Economic factors such as cost of land, availability of capital to start up, cost of cultivating on the land, ease of transporting produce to the market, laws of the land etc.

Socio-cultural factors such as religious and traditional beliefs.

Climatic factors of the geographical area.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND

  1. Land is the gift of nature or a natural resource.
  2. It is immobile (fixed factor).
  3. It is subject to law of diminishing returns.
  4. The reward of land is rent collected from tenants.
  5. Availability is subject to the Land Use Act in Nigeria.
  6. It is limited in supply especially in highly populated areas.
  7. Its suitability influences output
  8. Its quality can be improved by various methods.
  9. Its value is determined by its location
  10. Land can appreciate or depreciate.

 

USES OF LAND

Land us is broadly divided into two:

 

AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND

The following are uses of land to the farmer/in agriculture:

  1. for forestry
  2. for establishing game reserve/wildlife conservation.
  3. for livestock production such as fish farming, apiculture, rearing pigs etc.
  4. for crop farming.
  5. as collateral for loans.

 

NON- AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND

The following are non- agricultural uses of land

  1. Land is used for construction purposes, e.g roads, airports etc.
  2. Land is used for social or recreational purposes e.g. stadia, schools, markets, etc
  3. Land is used for residential buildings.
  4. Land can also be used for industrial buildings
  5. Land can also be used for mining purposes e.g extraction of petroleum, gold, etc

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is a land?
  2. Mention five characteristics of land.

 

APPRECIATION OF LAND

Land can appreciate (increase) in its value through the following ways:

  1. Fallowing- allowing farmlands to rest thereby regaining its lost nutrients.
  2. Addition or use of fertilizers or manure to increase its fertility.
  3. Use of clean uninfected inputs, e.g. planting materials like seeds.
  4. Weeding/clearing to remove weeds that compete with crops for nutrients and space
  5. Good and appropriate soil tillage that can prevent soil erosion.
  6. Irrigation- the artificial application of water to soil to supplement insufficient rain.
  7. Good access roads – to ensure proper usage of land
  8. Good drainage- the artificial removal of excess water from soil to promote crop growth.
  9. Increase in population density- which makes land expensive to acquire.

 

DEPRECIATION OF LAND

Land can depreciate or decrease in its use or value through the following ways:

  1. Erosion menace- this removes the top soil
  2. Infestation by weeds- these remove weeds from soil
  3. Infestation by pests- these pests reduce the yield of crops if present in the soil.
  4. Infestation by disease- this also reduces the yield of crops.
  5. Continuous cultivation without the use of fertilizers or manure.
  6. Abuse on land, e.g overgrazing, indiscriminate bush burning.
  7. Dumping of toxic materials as it tends to reduce soil fertility.
  8. Water-logging – this also reduces soil fertility and land for farming.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Define a land.
  2. Mention eight characteristics of land
  3. State five Non- agricultural Uses of Land.
  4. List five ways through which land can appreciate and depreciate.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ___ allow farmlands to rest thereby regaining its lost nutrients. A. irrigation B. Drainage C. Crop rotation D. Fallowing
  2. Land can appreciate in its value through the following except A. Use of fertilizers B. Irrigation C. Water-logging D. Good drainage
  3. Dumping of toxic materials on land can reduce ___ A. soil structure B. soil texture C. soil fertility D. soil porosity
  4. The reward of land is ____ A. rent B wages C. interest D. loan Land can be used as collateral for? A. Profit B. loans C. Debt D. Wages

 

THEORY

  1. What is a land?
  2. List five characteristics of land.

 

See also

WEEDS AND PEST CONTROL

PEST

WEED

IMPORTANCE OF FARM ANIMALS

CHARACTERISTICS OF FARM ANIMALS

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