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English Language (All Classes)

English Language

Stress and Intonation

Stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. In English, stressed syllables are louder than non-stressed syllables. Also, they are longer and have a higher pitch.English is a stress-timed language. That means that stressed syllables appear at a roughly steady tempo, whereas non-stressed syllables are shortened. Look at the examples of stress in words. The stressed  syllables are represented by bold writing.   ho liday, a lone, admi ra tion, con fi den tial, degree, weak er, ner vous, parents In spoken language, grammatical words (auxiliary verbs, prepositions, pronouns, articles, …) usually do not receive any stress. Lexical words, however, (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, …) must have at least one stressed syllable. There is no rule, however, about which syllable is stressed in a word with more than one syllable. You will need to… Read More »Stress and Intonation

English Language

Adverbs of Frequency

What are adverbs of frequency? Adverbs that change or qualify the meaning of a sentence by telling us how often or how frequently something happens are defined as adverbs of frequency. An adverb of frequency is exactly what it sounds like – an adverb of time. Adverbs of frequency always describe how often something occurs, either in definite or indefinite terms. An adverb that describes definite frequency is one such as weekly, daily, or yearly. An adverb describing indefinite frequency doesn’t specify an exact time frame; examples are sometimes, often, and rarely. Adverbs of Frequency Rules These simple rules for adverbs of frequency will help you to use them correctly: Always use adverbs of frequency to discuss how often something happens. Adverbs of frequency are often used to indicate routine or repeated activities, so they are often used with the present simple tense. If a sentence has only one verb… Read More »Adverbs of Frequency

English Language

VOWEL /Ә/

This sound is a neutral vowel. It is used to represent the weak form of other vowel sound. Why the schwa is the most common sound In stress-timed languages such as English, stresses occur at regular intervals. The words which are most important for communication of the message, that is, nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs, are normally stressed in connected speech.   Grammar words such as auxiliary verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers and prepositions are not usually stressed, and are reduced to keep the stress pattern regular. This means that they are said faster and at a lower volume than stressed syllables, and the vowel sounds lose their purity, often becoming a schwa. The first is with every word stressed and the second is faster and more natural with vowels being reduced. The same thing happens with individual words.   While stressed syllables maintain the full vowel sound, unstressed syllables… Read More »VOWEL /Ә/

English Language

Poetry

THE ELEMENTS of POETRY Poetry, as man’s inherited possession, is the expression of strong feeling and thought which leads to a communion between the individual and his surroundings, but most usually between a person and nature, the world, or the universe. Poetry is the means of universalizing and perpetuating a thought, an idea, a feeling, sensation, or internal experience. FORM Whenever we look at a poem, the first thing we will probably notice is its form. In other words, poems have a given FORM. One poem will look very different from another, and still another poem will look very distinct from the second one, and so on. Each poet uses the “form” which will most effectively EXPRESS what he wants to convey to other human beings. Traditional poetry used to follow very strict forms. People whostill follow these forms nowadays are following the traditional manner and style. But nowadays we… Read More »Poetry

English Language

Fiction and non-fiction

Fiction vs Non fiction Fiction is not true and non-fiction is true. This is the simplest way of defining fiction and non-fiction. Non-fiction involves real things, real people, real events, real places and real writing. However, fiction is just imaginary things, imaginary people, imaginary events, imaginary places and imaginary writing. While a writer based on his imagination creates Fiction, non- fiction is not created but only written based on facts.   While Non-fiction focuses on ideas or events that actually took place, fiction tends to be focusing on imaginary ideas and events. Coming to the characters, non-fiction deals with real people and fiction only creates characters.   If something is said to have happened in real places, whether in the past or present, then it is non-fiction. But if something is said to have taken place in a fake place, then it is fiction. A big difference is that fictions… Read More »Fiction and non-fiction

English Language

Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word that joins parts of a sentence together. Examples: And, but, or, because, so. Example sentences: I want to come, but I can’t. She is smart and beautiful. Would you like a cat or a dog? He didn’t pass the test because he didn’t understand the subject. We were hungry, so we ordered pizza. The word “conjunction” comes from the Latin word conjungere (join together) Interjections: An interjection is a short sound, word or phrase used to express the speaker’s emotion. Examples: Oh! Look out! Ow! Hey! Wow! Ah! Um… Example sentences: Wow, that’s amazing! Ah, that was a good meal. Um … I’m not sure what to say. Oh dear! What happened? Hello! How are you doing? Well, that’s an option too. The word “interjection” comes from the Latin word interjicere (throw between).   Assignment Look at the word in bold. Indicate the part of… Read More »Conjunctions

English Language

Prepositions

A preposition is a word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to connect it to another word in the sentence. It is usually used to show location, direction, time, and so forth. Examples: On, in, at, by, under, above, beside, to, out, from, for. Example sentences: I sat on the floor. Let’s go into the house. We will meet at four o’clock. Have a look under the couch. He went to school. This letter is for you. The word “preposition” comes from the Latin word praeponere (put before). So prepositions usually come before the noun/pronoun.   See also Adverbs Verbs Adjectives Pronouns Nouns

English Language

Adverbs

An adverb is a word that describes or gives more information about a verb, an adjectiv another adverb, or even the entire sentence. Adverbs usually answer the following questions: Where? Home. (“I went home.”) When? Yesterday. (“We met yesterday.”) How? Slowly. (“The turtle moves slowly .”) How often? Sometimes. (“Sometimes it stops responding.”) How long? Temporarily. (“She is staying with us temporarily.”) How likely? Surely. (“Our team will surely win!”) To what degree? Very . (“She was very pleased.”) An adverb can describe a verb: She runs quickly. An adverb can describe an adjective: She is so beautiful. An adverb can describe another adverb: She smokes very rarely. An adverb can describe an entire sentence: Naturally, you don’t have to come. The word “adverb” comes for the Latin ad- (in addition) and verbum (word). In many cases (but not always!) adverbs have the following form:   Adjective + “-ly” Examples:… Read More »Adverbs

English Language

Verbs

A verb is a word or group of words that express an action or a state. Examples: Go, jump, sleep, eat, think, be, change, become, drive, complete. Example sentences: We had a nice lunch. I think that he is right. He drove for hours. The word “verb” comes for the Latin word verbum, which means “word.” Auxiliary Verbs (also called “helping verbs”) Auxiliary verbs (helping verbs) and compound verbs. Auxiliary verbs are verbs that are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express the action or state. Main verb + auxiliary verb = complete idea. The main auxiliary verbs are: be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, have, has, had., Example sentences (the auxiliary verb is in bold, and the main verb is underlined): They are jogging. She was sitting. We were waiting for hours. Is she sleeping? He didn’t know the answer. We have gone… Read More »Verbs

English Language

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that describes a person or thing. Examples: Big, pretty, expensive, green, round, French, loud, quick, fat. Example sentences: He has big blue eyes. The new car broke down. The old lady was talking in a quiet voice. The word “adjective” comes from the Latin word jacere, which means “to throw.”   Types of adjectives Adjectives can be divided into several types: Opinion Nice, pretty, stupid, original, expensive, etc. Size Big, small, large, tiny, enormous, little, etc. Age Young, old, new, ancient, antique, etc. Shape Round, square, flat, straight, etc. Color Blue, red, white, black, dark, bright, yellowish, etc. Origin Italian, British, Mexican, western, southern, etc. Material Metal, wooden, plastic, golden, etc.   Determiners: A determiner is a word that comes before a noun to show which person or thing you are talking about. Examples: A, an , the , my, your, some, any, several, enough,… Read More »Adjectives

English Language

Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun. For example, you could say, “Lisa is a nice girl.” Then you could replace the noun “Lisa” with the word “She” and get the following sentence: “She is a nice girl.” “She” is a pronoun. Examples: I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself. Example sentences: (1) He doesn’t want go with them. (2) Would they help us? (3) His house is bigger than ours. (4) Who is she? The word “pronoun” comes from “pro” (in the meaning of “substitute”) + “noun.”   Types of Pronouns (A) Personal Pronouns: Personal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them. (2) Demonstrative Pronouns: “Demonstrative” means “showing, making something clear.” Demonstrative pronouns point to things. The demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, these, those. Use “this” and “these” to… Read More »Pronouns

English Language

Nouns

A noun is a word that names a person, a place or a thing. Examples: Sarah, lady, cat, New York, Canada, room, school, football, reading. Example sentences: (1) People like to go to the beach. (2) Emma passed the test. (3) My parents are traveling to Japan next month. The word “noun” comes from the Latin word nomen, which means “name,” and nouns are indeed how we name people, places and things.   Types of Nouns (1) Abstract Nouns: An abstract noun is a noun that names an idea, not a physical thing. Examples: Hope, interest, love, peace, ability, success, knowledge, trouble. (2)Concrete Nouns:                                                                                                                                                     A concrete noun is a noun that names a physical thing. Examples: Boy, table, floor, coffee, beach, king, rain, children, professor. (3) Common Nouns: A common noun is a noun that names a general thing, not a specific thing. Examples: Boy, girl, city, country, company, planet,… Read More »Nouns

English Language

Part of speech

What is a Part of Speech? A part of speech is a group of words that are used in a certain way. For example, “run,” “jump,” and “be” are all used to describe actions/states. Therefore they belong to the VERBS group. In other words, all words in the English language are divided into eight different categories. Each category has a different role/ function in the sentence. The English parts of speech Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. In the English language many words are used in more than one way. This means that a word can function as several different parts of speech. For example, in the sentence “I would like a drink “the word “drink” is a noun. However, in the sentence “They drink too much” the word “drink” is a verb. So it all depends on the word’s role in the sentence.   See also… Read More »Part of speech

English Language

ESSAY WRITING: INFORMAL LETTER

“A LETTER TO THE SISTER WHO PLANS TO DIVORCE HER HUSBAND ADVISING HER AGAINST THE DECISION”  ESSAY WRITING: INFORMAL LETTER Content Definition Features Informal letters are private or personal letters. They are letters we write to people who are very familiar to us such as our parents, relatives, friends, classmates and other people with whom we have close relationship.   FEATURES OF AN INFORMAL LETTER Writer’s address Salutation e.g. first name as in ‘Dear Peter’,Dear Chike’, ‘Dear Kemi’, Dear Father or you include “My” “d” must be small when “My” is included e.g. My dear Mother Introduction It is best to start with acknowledging the receipt of a letter written to you by the person. You may also start by asking after the person’s health or any other way you like. Body of the letter: Do exactly what the questions says you should do to earn more marks. Subscript: Informal… Read More »ESSAY WRITING: INFORMAL LETTER

English Language

COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS

COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS Introduction to Summary Writing Content The Procedure Useful Hints The Test: Summary section seeks to test the candidate’s ability to extract or pick relevant information from a longer passage and present that information in clear, concise language. The Procedure Read over the passage once or twice for thorough understanding Read the questions based on the passage Read the passage once again making notes or jotting down points that will help you to answer the questions. Write out your answers. Read over the questions and your answer to ensure there is no error.   EVALUATION Read the passage on page 77 of Effective English and answer the summary questions on page 79   SPELLING: PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES Content Prefixes Suffixes Prefixes are words or syllable placed before a root-word to form another word; e.g. un, non, dis, mis, super, trans, ex e.t.c Prefixes Root New words un… Read More »COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS

English Language

ADJECTIVE AND ADJECTIVAL PHRASE

THE JEWS The passage is about the Jews who looked at Abraham as their father. He made a covenant with God. The Jews were once enslaved by the Egyptians. The Jews moved to their country (Canaan) and later began to travel to other countries where they settled and became successful. Their main belief is that there is only one God.   EVALUATION Answer the questions below the passage. Page 61   STRUCTURE: ADJECTIVE AND ADJECTIVAL PHRASE Content Definition of Adjective Adjective phrases Adjective: It is a word which qualifies/modifies the noun or pronoun. Adjectives can be identified by certain suffixes like: able– drinkable ful-  successful   Adjectival Phrase It is a phrase that does the work of an adjective in a sentence i.e. It qualifies or describes a noun or pronoun. Examples The man with the red hair is my brother. (Prepositional Phrase /  an adjective phrase qualifying  man) The… Read More »ADJECTIVE AND ADJECTIVAL PHRASE

English Language

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT-TRANSPORTATION

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT-TRANSPORTATION AIR TRANSPORTATION Taxi- The process of a plane moving slowly along the ground before beginning to run forward for take-off. Runway: This is a wide path from which aircraft take off and on which they land. Tarmac: This is a surface of a road, runway at an airport. E,g The plane was waiting on a tarmac. Air hostess: A young woman who looks after passengers in an aircraft. Flight: A journey in a plane. Air borne: In the air. If a plane is airborne, it is in the air. Radar: This is the method of showing the direction and the distance of a plane by means of radio waves. Touch down: A plane touches down when it lands. Hangar: This is where aircraft are housed Control tower: This is where air traffic controllers sit and direct plane traffic Cockpit: A compartment in which the pilot of an aeroplane… Read More »VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT-TRANSPORTATION

English Language

FIGURES OF SPEECH: SIMILE, METAPHOR, IRONY AND PERSONIFICATION

COMPREHENSION/ORAL SKILLS ADVERTISING: Page 86-87 of the Effective English. The passage discusses about two basic objectives advertising, which are: to inform the target audience about the product or service; and to create or stimulate demand for the product or service through persuasion.    Evaluation Answer the questions below the passage.   FIGURES OF SPEECH Content: Meanings Kinds Figures of speech are ways of creating imagery by using figurative language, through which we conjure the picture of two or more things into writing and thereby bringing out very aptly the quantity or idea we are presenting. Examples:   SIMILE A simile is that figure of speech in which a likeness is definitely or formally expressed. It is introduced by “like” “as” e.t.c. Examples He runs like a hare Her cheeks appear as the dawn of day.   METAPHOR It is a figure of speech founded on the resemblance. It is also… Read More »FIGURES OF SPEECH: SIMILE, METAPHOR, IRONY AND PERSONIFICATION

English Language

KINDS OF SENTENCES

KINDS OF SENTENCES- SIMPLE, MULTIPLE, COMPOUND, COMPLEX AND COMPOUND-COMPLEX Essay Writing: Expository- “Honesty is the Best Legacy” Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Fisheries and Animal Husbandry   STRUCTURE: Kinds of Sentences Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Compound / Complex  Sentence   THE SENTENCE A Sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verbs / and expresses a complete sense or thought.   Types of Sentences Simple Sentence: This contains one subject and one predicate or verb. It is made up of one main clause. Simple sentences can be long, but each has only one subject and verb unit. The woman ran. He is in the room. The thief has been caught Compound Sentence: This contains two main clauses linked by co-ordinating conjunctions like and , but, or etc Main clause Conjunction Main clause The work stops but the tools are kept handy. Ngozi found the goat and… Read More »KINDS OF SENTENCES

English Language

COMPREHENSION/ READING SKILLS: SKIMMING AND SCANNING

COMPREHENSION / READING SKILLS The passage is a short extract from a full-length play. There are three characters; Salubi, Samson and Kotonou. Kotuno is a driver who wants to give up driving, Samson, a motor park tout, is his mate or conductor. Salubi  is a driver-trainee. EVALUATION Answer the questions under the comprehension passage.   STRUCTURE: NOUN PHRASE AND VERB PHRASE Content Definition Functions Definition:  A noun phrase is a phrase in which the main word or the head is a noun or pronoun. Functions:  The noun phrase performs exactly the same functions as a noun. (i) As subject of a sentence The big girl The big ugly girl in the class is quarrelsome. The big ugly girl who stammers is quarrelsome. A young talented Nigerian lady was presented an award last year. The boy in red shirt is my friend. We bought a brand new car.   The gerundial… Read More »COMPREHENSION/ READING SKILLS: SKIMMING AND SCANNING

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