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English Language (All Classes)

English Language

Parts of speech

All the parts of speech are: Noun (2) pronoun                        (3) verbs                              (4)adjective (5) adverb   (6) preposition  (7) conjunction   We shall consider each one, under our grammar lesson Noun- A noun is a naming word. Nouns are the names of people e.g man, woman, Ali etc. names of animals e.g horse, dog, cat etc. mane of things e.g. house, tree, blackboard etc.   Function of a Noun A noun can function as a subject in a sentence A subject is the doer of an action. E.g. Wale is in the class ‘Wale’ is a noun and it occupies the subject position of the sentence. A noun can also function as object in a sentence An object is the RECEIVER of an action. E.g. The teacher slapped Wale “The action of slapping” is received by Wale hence, Wale is the object of the sentence.   Types of nouns… Read More »Parts of speech

English Language

INTRODUCTION TO SPEECH

Speech involves language sounds which are associated with meaningful sounds that come out of the mouth (human mouth) and they are known as speech sounds. What is articulation? Articulation is the movement of the vocal organs to produce speech sounds the vocal organs are then referred to as “articulators”    PURE VOWEL SOUNDS (MONO THRONGS) There are 44 sound segments in English comprising 20 vowels and 24 consonant. We shall be covering vowel sounds and their classifications are: Pure vowels                                       short vowel Vowels Dipthongs                                 long vowels   The vowels in English are classified into two main groups: pure vowels (also called mono thongs) and dipthongs the pure vowels are sub- classified into short vowels and long vowels. Dipthongs are vowel sounds that are made up of two speech sounds   EVALUATION Answer the following questions: What is articulation? Mention 10 organs or speech 3a. how many vowel sounds do… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO SPEECH

English Language

TENSES

Tense is the change which takes place in the structure (i.e form) of the verb to show time. The Simple present tense: It is used to show an action that occurs always or an occupation. Examples: I eat beans everyday He sells bread They work hard My father is a trader The sun shines during the day   The simple past: This is used for an action that took place in the past. Example: Yesterday I ate rice Last year, Badmus spent his holiday in Jos They worked hard She sold bread a week ago.   The future tense: it is used to show an event that will take place in the future. Example: I shall write letter to my father They will attend the meeting She will sell bread in the evening She will meet principal in his office They will work hard next week   Assignment Progressive English… Read More »TENSES

English Language

COMPOSITION

COMPOSITION: elements of composition: pre-writing, writing, edition, body and conclusion. Pre – writing (Introduction): An essay should introduction. Introduction helps to provide enough information for the proper understanding of the body or middle of the essay. An introduction should show what essay is about. The body of the essay: take note of the following points. Write clear and simple English and try to avoid pompous language. Write down the main points and arrange them in order Mind your tenses Pay attention to spellings and punctuations Try to develop paragraph around your main points Coherence: coherence meant consistence or sticking together of ideas, speech, etc. Conclusion: the essay should have conclusion. The conclusion should draw together the idea and its relationship with the major points. It should be brief and logical. See also READING AND COMPREHENSION Listening and speaking READING AND COMPREHENSION Transitive an intransitive verbs consonant sound

English Language

READING AND COMPREHENSION

Identification of words that points to writer’s intention on contemporary issue like corruption. The writer intention pointing to the contemporary issue on corruption according to the passage. Bulgar proofing Fright Harmful object Crackled Trod Outwit Accidentally   VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT WORDS ASSOCAITED WITH HOSPITAL Reference: New Oxford Book 2, page 22. Increase your word power. Have you been to a hospital either as patient or a visitor? If you have, you will notice the various department that make up hospital. For instance, there is a casuality department that attend and treats accident victims – Also we have the following obsteritircs and gynaecology (treatment of disease). It concerns with birth of children. Paediatrics – it concerned with children. Surgery – for operation. Cardiology – (for the heart) nephorology (dealing with the kidney) neurology – (dealing with the brain) dermatology (slain) and gastroenterology (concern with the stomach organs such as the intestine, liver… Read More »READING AND COMPREHENSION

English Language

Listening and speaking

The /l∂/ sound e.g. /ear, clear, hear). The articulation of this diphthong involves a gliding movement of the tongue towards the centre as illustrated in the following vowel chart. If you pronounce the word ‘here’ the shape of the lips remains neutral from the beginning of the articulation of the diphthong to the end while the glide begins with a tongue position/i/ and mores in the direction of /∂/. The spelling symbols for/ld/ are: ‘Ere’’ as in here. ‘’ear’’ as in hear. ‘Eer’’ as in beer. ‘Eir’’ as in weird.   A diagram showing the gliding movement of the tongue for the production of /∂/, /u∂ /, /e∂/                                                 ASSIGNMENT Underline the word that show sound /l∂ / in the following sentences. The deer is a herbivorous animal. At the appearance of her child, tear of joy flowed down her cheeks. Don’t fear a deer, it won’t attack you. He… Read More »Listening and speaking

English Language

READING AND COMPREHENSION

Reading to understand the writer’s purpose. Content: comprehension is a process of reading, understanding and explaining what is written in a passage. For every comprehension exercise, there must be a passage to be read. The purpose of comprehension exercise is to test student’s understanding of a given passage. In comprehension, the thoughts of the writer’s are presented to student for reading, understanding and explaining. Instruction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. No 1: unit one (1) how we spent the Holiday. Reference: New oxford English course for junior secondary school (upper Basic Education) 2, page 8, 9.   ASSIGNMENT. Student should answer question 6 – 10 from home. LESSON FOUR (4) CONTINUOUS WRITING: COMPOSITION Descriptive Essay – A Local Festival. Content: What is a descriptive essay? A descriptive essay is writing about the way persons, animals or things appear. In writing a description, a writer goes through… Read More »READING AND COMPREHENSION

English Language

Transitive an intransitive verbs

TRANSITIVE: A transitive verb has an object. In other words, the action of the verb is transferred from the subject to the object. Example (i) Ayo shouted at his wife  -obj. (ii) Olu wrote a letter – obj. (iii) Mr Ojo killed a goat – obj. INTRANSITIVE VERBS: An intransitive verb does not need object for completion. It does not have an object. In other words, the action of the verb does not go across from the subject to the object. Example: The baby cries. Samuel laughs. The pig grunts. The lion roars. The sun shines.   ASSIGNMENT Indicate which of the following transitive or intransitive verb is. The water is boiling. Justine slept Mr olayemi punished the late comers. The boy ate the rice. The door is open half way.   See also consonant sound ADVERBS OF CAUSE AND REASON DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

English Language

Revision of consonant sound with emphasis on constant cluster

As we already know, there are forty-four speech sounds on English. While twenty of them is vowels, the remaining twenty four are consonants. A consonant is produced with the flow if air from the lungs is in erupted somewhere in the ducal clarity (mouth).   A consonant is therefore a speech sound which produced with the obstruction of airstream is. The obstruction could be ‘partial ‘or ‘total’, The important thing about the production of a consonant, therefore, is that there is always a degree of obstruction of the airstream from the lungs. The degree of obstruction of air is one of the three important factors used in classifying the English consonants. These factors are usually considered in the classification of consonants. These are: Place of articulation. Manner of articulation. State of glottis.   Here are the lists of consonant sound with examples. /p/ as in pan,prefect,nap /b/ as in bud,… Read More »Revision of consonant sound with emphasis on constant cluster

English Language

ADVERBS OF CAUSE AND REASON

Adverbs of Reasons and Adverbs of cause Adverbs of Reasons = Adverbs of Cause: These adverbs express the reason for or a purpose of an action. Examples: Krishna was hence neglected by the teachers. She thus opened the door applying little visible force. He, therefore, does not want to talk to me. The teacher is ill and therefore is unable to come to school. ASSIGNMENT Write out five sentences and identify the adverb of reason   See also DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY ADVERBS OF MANNER CONSONANT SOUNDS

English Language

DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY

Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay, which reveals meaning through a personal story, the purpose of a descriptive essay is to reveal the meaning of a subject through detailed, sensory observation. The descriptive essay employs the power of language and all the human senses to bring a subject to life for the reader.   If readers come away from a descriptive essay with the feeling that they have really met a person, gone to a particular place, or held a certain object, the writer has done a good job. If readers also feel an emotional connection and deep appreciation for the subject’s significance, the writer has done a great job.   The Five-Step Writing Process for Descriptive Essays. Professional writers know one thing: Writing takes work, Understanding and following the proven steps of the writing process… Read More »DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY

English Language

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION

What are idioms? Definition An idiom (also called idiomatic expression) is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning conventionally understood by native speakers. This meaning is different from the literal meaning of the idiom individual elements. In other words, idioms don’t mean exactly what the words say. They have, however, hidden meaning. Examples “Kick the bucket” “Spill the beans” The meaning of these expressions is different from the literalmeaning or definition of the words of which they are made. Their meaning are however used figuratively. They mean respectively: “to die ” “to tell people secret information” Idiomatic expressions are a type of informal English that have a meaning different from the meaning of the words in the expression. Here’s an example of an idiomatic expression. Hold your tongue. This idiom does not actually mean that you should stick your fingers in your mouth and grab a hold… Read More »IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION

English Language

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

What is an Argumentative Essay? Argument essays seek to state a position on an issue and give several reasons, supported by evidence, for agreeing with that position. Argument essay topics can be found everywhere. Check the headlines of a newspaper, or just listen in to a conversation at you local Starbucks. Chances are, you will hear someone trying to persuade another person to believe in their claim about: What caused this? How important is it? What should we do about it?   Types of Argument Claims Fact: Is it true or not? Definition: What does it really mean? Value: How important is it? Cause and Effect: What is the cause? What are the effects? Policy: What should we do about it? How to Write Your Thesis Question/Answer format: To make your topic idea into a thesis youneed to turn the topic idea into a question first. Examples: Does divorce cause… Read More »ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

English Language

ADVERBS OF MANNER

Adverbs of Manner What is an adverb of manner? Adverbs of manner describe how something happens. For example, it is possible to walk or run at different speeds. The words used to describe walking or running at different speeds (quickly or slowly for example) are excellent examples of adverbs of manner. They help the reader gain greater insight into the way a written scene is playing out. Comparing the following sentences will help you to understand how these adverbs change the overall meaning of the sentences they’re found in.   The boys ran. (There is no adverb of manner in this sentence, so we can only imagine how fast the boys are running.) The boys ran quickly. (The adverb of manner is quickly. It tells us that the boys are in a hurry.) The boys were tired, so they ran more slowly than before. (The adverb of manner is slowly.… Read More »ADVERBS OF MANNER

English Language

CONSONANT SOUNDS

As we already know, there are forty-four speech sounds on English. While twenty of them is vowels, the remaining twenty four are consonants. A consonant is produced with the flow if air from the lungs is in erupted somewhere in the ducal clarity (mouth). A consonant is therefore a speech sound which produced with the obstruction of airstream is. The obstruction could be ‘partial ‘or ‘total’, The important thing about the production of a consonant, therefore, is that there is always a degree of obstruction of the airstream from the lungs. The degree of obstruction of air is one of the three important factors used in classifying the English consonants.\   These factors are usually considered in the classification of consonants. These are: Place of articulation. Manner of articulation. State of glottis. Here are the lists of consonant sound with examples. /p/  as in pan,prefect,nap /b/ as in bud, rubber,… Read More »CONSONANT SOUNDS

English Language

INFORMAL LETTER AND FORMAL LETTER

Introduction: writing is the means of communication. We shall revisit the formal and informal letter in this lesson. A formal letter is refers to the business, letter or an official letter e.g. for casual leave by staff in offices or an application for a job. The features of the formal letter The address: this should be written at the top of a letter on the right hand corner. Remember to write the name of you state and date. Write the date in full and put a full stop after abbreviation. 8, Adesanya street, Ile – Epo, Oke – Ode, Lagos. 22nd October, 2017. The principal, Elias International School, Ile – Epo, Oke – Odo, Lagos. The recipients address: the recipient’s address should be written on the left hand side below the writer’s address. The example is written above. iii. Salutation (greetings) The name in salutation is followed by a comma.… Read More »INFORMAL LETTER AND FORMAL LETTER

English Language

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Adjectives: -ed or -ing? English contains numerous -ed or -ing adjective pairs derived from verbs. To avoid mixing these up,remember that the -ed adjectives are used to describe how you feel, and the -ing adjectives are used for what it is that makes you feel that way. Here are some examples: I feel tired . – Working in the garden all day is very tiring . I am bored . – This grammar lesson is boring . She was disappointed . – Her math test score was disappointing . I’m interested in Ancient Egypt. – I think Ancient Egypt is interesting . He was shocked . – He found your behaviour shocking . I’m very confused by this film. – This film is very confusing . Adjective or adverb? In English most (but not all) adverbs have a different form (spelling) than their corresponding adjective. It is important, therefore, that… Read More »ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

English Language

INFORMAL LETTER

Letter writing is an act of communicating information, feelings, ideas or opinions to somebody who is absent or resides in a distance. A letter should contain full details of the issue one is writing about in order to bring about the same reaction that would have occurred if the message contained in it had been a spoken one. Types of letter writing Informal letter Semi formal letter Formal letter INFORMAL LETTER An informal letter is also known as personal letter. These are letters written to a close relative, friends and close ones.                         FORMAT OF INFORMAL LETTER Address of the writer and date: this must be well – punctuated. The address must appear on the top right hand corner of the page. Example: 36, Adebayo Street, Abule – Egba, Lagos. 24th May, 2017. Greeting/salutation: this is usually “Dear” plus… Read More »INFORMAL LETTER

English Language

Positive statement to Negative

Sentence transformation: affirmative to negative Change the following affirmative sentences into negatives. In the simple present tense, we make negative forms by putting ‘not’ after ‘do’ or ‘ does’. Note that ‘do’ is used when the subject is a plural noun or pronoun. The first person pronoun ‘I’ also takes the verb ‘do’. ‘Does’ is used when the subject is a singular noun or pronoun. In the simple past tense, we make negatives by putting ‘did not’ before the base form of the verb. My sister lives with my parents. I know the answer. I want to leave now. My mother works at a bank. Supriya sings really well. Martin gets along with his brother-in-law. The boy killed the spider with his shoe. She recognized him at once. He apologized for his conduct. She threw a tantrum when she was told that she wouldn’t be able to go. Answers My… Read More »Positive statement to Negative

Literature in English

Rhyme Scheme

Rhyme Scheme Definition of Rhyme Scheme Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyme that comes at the end of each verse or line in poetry. In other words, it is the structure of end words of a verse or line that a poet needs to create when writing a poem. Many poems are written in free verse style . Some other poems follow non-rhyming structures, paying attention only to the number of syllables. The Japanese genre of Haiku is a case in point. Thus, it shows that the poets write poems in a specific type of rhyme scheme or rhyming pattern. There are several types of rhyme schemes as given below. Types of Rhyme Scheme There are a number of rhyme schemes used in poetry; some of the most popular of which include: Alternate rhyme : It is also known as ABAB rhyme scheme, it rhymes as “ABAB CDCD EFEF… Read More »Rhyme Scheme

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