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English Language (All Classes)

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SCHEME OF WORK FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS 1

ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS 1 FIRST TERM Oracy Skills: Spoken English 1. Selected consonant sounds (j, z, etc.) 2. Consonants followed by /w/ 3. Consonants followed by /j/ 4. Syllabic consonants /l/ 5. Consonants sounds followed by K + W 6. Consonants followed by /J/ and /U/ sounds Vocabulary Development 1. Vocabulary Associated with Home and Family 2. Vocabulary Associated with Agriculture 3. Vocabulary Associated with Fishing and Animal Husbandry-Fishing 4. Vocabulary Associated with Animal Husbandry 5. Vocabulary Associated with Religion – Traditional Religion English Grammatical Structures 1. Nouns and Noun Phrases with the Definite Articles 2. Countable and Uncountable Nouns 3. Introducing Nominalisation of adjectives and verbs Literacy Skills: Writing For Effective Communication 1. Continuous writing – Narrative 2. Letter Writing – informal letter 3. Record Keeping Oracy Skills: Reading for Comprehension and Effective Study 1. Reading to comprehend main ideas or story line 2. Reading to comprehend supporting details… Read More »SCHEME OF WORK FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS 1

English Language

REVIEW OF TENSES

Tenses occurs only in verbs. Tense refers to the changes that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate time. Only two tenses, namely the present and the past, can be identified.   The Present Tense: The only change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate the present tense occurs when the verb agrees with a third person singular subject. Examples Singular                     I sleep, wake and eat You sleep, wake and eat He sleeps, wake and eat   Plural             We sleep, wake and eat You sleep, wake and eat They sleep, wake and eat   The Past Tense: Regular verbs form their past by adding. ‘ed’ to the simple form of the verb, while irregular verbs from their past tense in different ways. Examples: Bassey worked in the farm yesterday. (regular) Ngozi spoke to me on the telephone (irregular)   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE… Read More »REVIEW OF TENSES

English Language

THE VOWEL AND THE CONSONANTS

Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English Language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs. Pure vowels /i:/ Seat, Cheap, Sheep /i/ sit, chip, ship /e/ set, bread, friend /ᴂ/ Sat, Chat, match /a:/ Far, pass, father /ɔ/ Dog, hot, what /ɔ/ port, Lord, ward /u/ full, pull, would /u:/ fool, pool, coup /Λ/ fun, cut, tongue /ᴈ:/ first, nurse, word /ə/ again, away, forget   Diphthongs /ei/ eight, gate, stable /əv/ go, boat, toe /ai/ bite, fight, die /au/ how, south, doubt /ɔi/ boy, oil, toy /iə/ fear, hear, cheer /eə/ fare, hair, bare /əu/ sure, poor, tour   Consonants: There are twenty-four consonants in the English Language. They are /p/ People, deep, stipend /b/ ball, debate, mob /t/ take, mistake, boat /d/ do, admit,mad /k/ can, kettle, suck /g/ gun, bag, again /ts/ church, watch, butcher /d ɜ/ judge, joy, bridge /f/ fever, safe, father /v/… Read More »THE VOWEL AND THE CONSONANTS

English Language

Nominalization of Infinitives

Nominalization is the changing of a part of speech into a noun by the addition of a suffix Verbs                                                                         Nouns Advise                                                                        advice Apologise                                                                  apology Authorise                                                                  authority Choose                                                                      Choice Fail                                                                              failure Fix                                                                               fixture Hate                                                                           hatred Enjoy                                                                         enjoyment Know                                                                         knowledge Live                                                                             life Oppose                                                                     opposition Obey                                                                          obedience Secure                                                                       security Rob                                                                             robbery See                                                                             sight Speak                                                                         speech Serve                                                                         service Think                                                                          thought Strike                                                                         stroke Weight                                                                      weight     Non-Restrictive Clause: In the non-restrictive, the clause provides additional information to the subject and is marked with commas. Examples The young lawyer, who is 25, gave the closing remark. The house, which has been renovated, looks very new. The book, about which so much has been said, is not interesting. The principal, who I told you about, is a sadist. My brother, who lives in Abuja, visited me last week.   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION TAGS

English Language

LEXIS AND STRUCTURE

Lexis refers to the vocabulary or the entire stock of words in a language. The English language examination seeks to test the scope of the candidate’s vocabulary and his skills to use appropriate words in a given context. It covers such aspects as the use of items in various areas of human endeavour.   In the study of English grammatical structure, we learn how words combine with other words of form larger units. A list of words, expressions or terms that are regularly used in relation to a particular subject-matter or associated with a particular area of human activity and development is referred to as a register.

English Language

Formal Letters

These are letters we write to people in their official positions. Features of a formal letter Writer’s Address and Date: This is written at the top right hand corner. The date is written beneath the address. Receiver’s Address: This is written at the left hand corner beneath the writer’s address. Salutation: The acceptable salutation is Dear Sir or Dear Madam. Heading or Topic or Title: This is written below the salutation Introduction: This should be straight forward and precise Body of the letter: This should consist of at least three well developed paragraph. Conclusion: this should be done in a paragraph. Subscript (Complimentary close): The acceptable closing is ‘Yours faithfully’ followed by a comma. The signature is appended beneath the closing with the full name written below the signature.   Sample Question: Write a letter to the Commissioner of Education, informing him about the plan of your council to engage… Read More »Formal Letters

English Language

ANSWERING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

HOW ANSWERING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS.  Comprehension means understanding. Useful hints on answering comprehension questions. Read the passage carefully and quickly to get what it is all about. Read the questions that follow it. Read the passage all over again, this time jotting down points that will help you to answer the questions. Write out your answers in clear, correct English Read over your answers to ensure that there are no mistakes. Note: In the process of answering comprehension questions, you are advised to obey the instructions to the letter. No information which is not required should be given. Never give two answers where one is demanded. When replacing a word in the passage, test your equivalent in the passage to see if the original meaning of the passage or sentence has been retained.   Other hints are: If you are told to give a one-word answer, do not give more than… Read More »ANSWERING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

English Language

REQUIREMENT OF THE EXAMINATION ON ORALS

REQUIREMENT OF THE EXAMINATION ON ORALS  The aspects of oral English tested in the examination include the following: vowels, consonants, rhymes, word-stress, emphatic stress and phonetic symbols. Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs. Consonants: There are twenty four consonants in the English language. They are classified into three groups, place of articulation, manner of articulation and state of the glottis. Word-stress: This refers to the amount of pressure exerted when pronouncing a particular syllable of a word. The syllable with the stress is marked with a slash at the top in the dictionary. Emphatic Stress: This is the stressing of particular word more than other words in a sentence. Such  a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence. Rhymes: When two or more words have a similar sound at the end, they are… Read More »REQUIREMENT OF THE EXAMINATION ON ORALS

English Language

Latin Expression used in English

Latin Expression used in English  Lating was the language of the ancient Romans. Nowadays, few people in Europe elsewhere learn Latin, but until the past 70 years or so, it was a language learn I virtually every educated person. Here are some Latin expressions that are part of the English language ad hoc: Intended for a particular purpose ad infinitum: for ever ad nauseam: to the point of making one sick bona fide: genuine Curriculum vitae: a summary of a person’s qualifications and career, used to support an application for a job. De facto: in practice De jure: by right Et cetera: and the rest Exempli gratia: for the sake of an example, generally abbreviated to e.g. ex officio: by the virtue of one’s position Id est: that is, often abbreviated to i.e impromptu: unprepared in extremis: in extreme conditions persona non grata: an unwelcome person ultra vires: beyond one’s… Read More »Latin Expression used in English

English Language

CONTRASTING STRESS

The stressing of a particular word more than other words in a sentence is referred to as emphatic or contrastive stress. Such as a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence. Examples JAMES borrowed the novel (i.e James not anybody else borrowed it) James BORROWED the novel. (i.e. James didn’t, for example, steal or buy the novel, he borrowed it.) We MUST honour the invitation. (wether we like it or not) I BOUGHT the book. (I didn’t steal it) This is THE Mr. Obi. (of special fame)   Comprehension: Meteors The passage is adopted from the New Atlas of the Universe by Patrick More. It centre on Meteors, the junior member of th solar system. They are small and very plentiful in the solar system. There are two types of Meteors; showers and sporadic meteor.   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION… Read More »CONTRASTING STRESS

English Language

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech This refers to the quoting by a speaker or writer, of the actual utterance of another speaker or writer. This is usually indicated by the use of quotation marks, opening and closing. Examples Chuks said, ‘I will return next month, by the grace of God.’ In the word of Shakespeare ‘Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.’ Their pastor always says,’we owe nothing to ourselves but owe everything to God.’ According to Acheb,’Proverbs are the palm oil with which the Igbo eat their words., ‘We have neither been fed nor accommodated since we arrived yesterday, ’the visitors complained bitterly.   Features of Direct Speech The direct speech is enclosed with inverted commas, opening an closing. It is usually followed by a reporting verb, which may be in the past or present; for example; ‘she said’. Sometimes, the direct speech is introduced by such expressions as; ‘According to…’… Read More »Direct and Indirect Speech

English Language

CLAUSE

A clause is a group of words with finite verb. A clause should have a subject and a predicate. e.g. John bought a piece of land. Subject: John Predicate – bought a piece of land   Types of Clause There are two types of clauses. Independent clauses: These are also called main or principal clauses. An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence. e.g. My English master is a kind man. Dependent Clause: These are also called subordinate clauses. A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence. It depends on an independent clause for its meaning E.g. which he recommended. There are three types of subordinate clauses. Noun Clauses A noun clause is a subordinate clause that has a noun as the head word. A noun clause performs the functions of a… Read More »CLAUSE

English Language

Speech Writing

Characteristic of a written speech Formal Salutation (vocatives); There is always an audience to be addressed. In formal situations, people are usually appointed to perform one function or the other. Social ethics demand that you recognize and accord due respect to those at the high table and other dignitaries present at the occasion. The use of personal pronouns; the speaker often personalizes his speech by the use of personal pronouns such A I, you, we, he, etc. Which reflects actual speech? Use of short forms; Speeches are often characterized by the use of short forms of words and sentences E.g. Sam (for Samuel), I’m ( I am) can’t (cannot) don’t (do not) Introducing the Topic: After the salutation, the next logical thing to do is to introduce your topic. Whatever, your topic is, try to introduce it in an interesting manner, showing in one way other that you hold your… Read More »Speech Writing

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