Skip to content

English Language (All Classes)

English Language

POSSESSIVE NOUNS

A possessive noun shows who or what owns something. A possessive noun can either be singular or plural. A singular possessive noun shows that one person, place, or thing has or owns something. To make a singular noun show possession, add an apostrophe and s (‘s). Example: the feathers of the chick – the chick’s feathers the hat that belongs to the man – the man’s hat Other examples: the child’s toy Mark’s bike The fish’s fins The horse’s tail Using possessive nouns is shorter and better than other ways of showing possession. Example: LONGER: The dog belonging to Papa is barking. BETTER: Papa’s dog is barking.   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION TAGS

English Language

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

These are nouns that represent a group of people or things as a single unit.  Some collective nouns can take plural forms Examples: Crowd (s) flock (s) Group (s) herd (s) Team (s) committee (s) Pair (s) Some collective nouns, however, cannot be used in the plural: Examples Furniture* beddings* Equipments* informations* Luggages* baggages*   Exercise 10 When I arrived at the airport, there were ……………1………….. (crowd ) of people blocking the entrance with their ……………..2……………… (luggage). Near the customs sections, several……………3…………….. (group ) of officials were standing, checking the ………………4……………… (equipment ) that was being loaded onto a trolley. Most people were standing, waiting for… ………….5…………….. (information ) from the loudspeakers on the departures and arrivals of aircraft.   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION TAGS  

English Language

COMPOUND NOUNS

A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. The words that form compound nouns may be joined together, separated or hyphenated. Examples: Joined: bookcase, blackboard, pushcart Separated: high school, rabbit hutch, radar gun Hyphenated: go-getter, mother-in-law, sergeant –at-arms Compound nouns are usually a combination of two or more word classes.   The most common combinations are as follows; a) Some are formed by joining a noun with another noun. Most of these compound nouns take their plurals in the last words. Examples: Tableroom (s) grassroot (s) prizefighter(s) Cubboard (s) policeman/men rubber-stamp (s) Bookcase(s) farmhouse (s) sanitary towel (s) Cowshed (s) fruit machine (s) shoulder blade (s) b) Some are formed by joining a verb and an adverb. Most of these compound nouns also take their plurals in the last words.   Examples: Breakfast (s) push-up (s) rundown (s) Takeaway (s) knockout (s) slip-up (s)… Read More »COMPOUND NOUNS

English Language

PLURALS WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

One way to express plurals of uncountable nouns is by use of expressions of quantity. Example: a piece of information – pieces of information a loaf of bread – four loaves of bread a tin of soup – three tins of soup a piece of furniture – several pieces of furniture a litre of milk – twenty litres of milk a bottle of beer – ten bottles of beer   Exercise 9 Supply an appropriate expression of quantity for the following uncountable nouns a……………………………………. of cigarettes. two……………………………… of cooking oil three………………………… of jam. ten……………………….of butter. six………………………of soda. a……………………… of toothpaste three……………………..of rice. five ……………………….. of flour. two ………………………… of chocolate. four…………………….. of news.   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION TAGS

English Language

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Countable Nouns These are nouns that take plurals and can be counted. Examples: Egg – eggs One egg, three eggs , ten eggs Potato – Potatoes Twenty potatoes Onion – Onions Two hundred onions Such nouns are known as COUNTABLE or COUNT NOUNS   Uncountable Nouns These are nouns that do not take plurals and cannot be counted. Examples: salt, butter, cooking fat, milk, bread, jam We do not say: Two butters* Ten milks* Three breads* Such nouns are known as UNCOUNTABLE or MASS NOUNS   Exercise 8 Rewrite the words below in two columns, COUNTABLE and UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Orange Coffee Furniture tea Water gold Chair team Friend music   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION TAGS

English Language

SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS

A noun may be either singular or plural. A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea. Example: The farmer drove to the market in his truck. A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing or idea. Example: The farmers drove to the markets in their trucks.   Rules for forming plurals The following are guidelines for forming plurals: To form the plural of most singular nouns, add -s. Examples: Street – streets, house – houses, painter – painters, shelter – shelters, event- events, hospital – hospitals. When a singular noun ends in s, sh, ch, x, or z, add – es. Examples: dress-dresses, brush-brushes, ax-axes, coach-coaches, box – boxes, bench-benches, dish-dishes, waltz – waltzes. When a singular noun ends in o, add -s to make it plural. Examples: Piano-pianos, solo-solos, cameo – cameos, concerto – concertos, patio-patios, studio-studios, radio-radios, rodeo – rodeos. For some nouns ending with a consonant and… Read More »SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS

English Language

COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS

All nouns can be described as either common or proper. When you talk or write about a person, a place, a thing, or an idea in general, you use a common noun. Example: Doctors work hard. They treat many patients. A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Proper nouns always begin with capital letters. Example: Johnson Peters is a doctor. He comes from New York. Note: When a proper noun is made up of more than one word, only the important words in the noun will begin with a capital letter. Do not capitalize words such as the, of, or for. Example: Gulf of Mexico, State of Liberty, the Commander – in – Chief.   Study: ENGLISH LANGUAGE PAST QUESTIONS (SSCE)   Common and Proper Nouns Common nouns Proper nouns Common nouns Proper nouns Street Kerugoya city Raila Odinga Author South Africa ocean Wanjohi wa Kigogo-ini… Read More »COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS

English Language

PARTS OF SPEECH

All words may be classified into groups called parts of speech. There are 8 parts of speech namely: Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. We shall now discuss these parts of speech one at a time:   NOUNS A noun is the part of speech that names a person, a place, a thing or an idea. You use nouns every day when you speak or write. Every day you probably use thousands of nouns. Because nouns name the objects and people and places around you, it would be very difficult to talk about anything at all without them. Many nouns name things you can see:   Persons, Places, Things Boy Lake Boot Student Country Shadow John Kamau Nairobi Chair Stranger Jupiter Sweater Writer Kenyatta Market Calendar Barrack Obama Sierra Leone Short story Note: Nouns can be two or more words e.g. John Kamau, Kenyatta Market and Short story.… Read More »PARTS OF SPEECH

English Language

ENGLISH LANGUAGE SSS3 SCHEME OF WORK

ENGLISH LANGUAGE (ENG) SSS3- FIRST TERM Oracy Skills: Spoken English 1. Revision of Sentence Intonation Pattern 2. Clusters of Two Consonant Words Occurring at Final Position 3. Clusters of three and Four Consonant words that Occur at the Final Position 4. He Schwa/ə/ as Final Unstressed Syllable Vocabulary Development 1. Words Associated with Culture, Institutions and Ceremonies 2. Words Associated with Motor Vehicles and Travelling 3. Words Associated with Government and Administration 4. Words Associated with Law and Order 5. Words Associated with Science and Technology English Grammatical Structures 1. Revising Nouns and Noun Phrases 2. Revising Pronouns and their Uses 3. Revising Verbs and Verbs Phrases 4. Revising Sequence of Tenses Literacy Skills: Writing For Effective Communication 1. Revising Continuous Writing (in given length) 2. Revising Letter Writing (In given length) Oracy Skills: Reading for Comprehension and Effective Study 1. Reading Silently to Answer Questions 2. Reading to Summarize… Read More »ENGLISH LANGUAGE SSS3 SCHEME OF WORK

Coat of arms of Nigeria

SCHEME OF WORK FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS 1

ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS 1 FIRST TERM Oracy Skills: Spoken English 1. Selected consonant sounds (j, z, etc.) 2. Consonants followed by /w/ 3. Consonants followed by /j/ 4. Syllabic consonants /l/ 5. Consonants sounds followed by K + W 6. Consonants followed by /J/ and /U/ sounds Vocabulary Development 1. Vocabulary Associated with Home and Family 2. Vocabulary Associated with Agriculture 3. Vocabulary Associated with Fishing and Animal Husbandry-Fishing 4. Vocabulary Associated with Animal Husbandry 5. Vocabulary Associated with Religion – Traditional Religion English Grammatical Structures 1. Nouns and Noun Phrases with the Definite Articles 2. Countable and Uncountable Nouns 3. Introducing Nominalisation of adjectives and verbs Literacy Skills: Writing For Effective Communication 1. Continuous writing – Narrative 2. Letter Writing – informal letter 3. Record Keeping Oracy Skills: Reading for Comprehension and Effective Study 1. Reading to comprehend main ideas or story line 2. Reading to comprehend supporting details… Read More »SCHEME OF WORK FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS 1

English Language

REVIEW OF TENSES

Tenses occurs only in verbs. Tense refers to the changes that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate time. Only two tenses, namely the present and the past, can be identified.   The Present Tense: The only change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate the present tense occurs when the verb agrees with a third person singular subject. Examples Singular                     I sleep, wake and eat You sleep, wake and eat He sleeps, wake and eat   Plural             We sleep, wake and eat You sleep, wake and eat They sleep, wake and eat   The Past Tense: Regular verbs form their past by adding. ‘ed’ to the simple form of the verb, while irregular verbs from their past tense in different ways. Examples: Bassey worked in the farm yesterday. (regular) Ngozi spoke to me on the telephone (irregular)   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE… Read More »REVIEW OF TENSES

English Language

THE VOWEL AND THE CONSONANTS

Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English Language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs. Pure vowels /i:/ Seat, Cheap, Sheep /i/ sit, chip, ship /e/ set, bread, friend /ᴂ/ Sat, Chat, match /a:/ Far, pass, father /ɔ/ Dog, hot, what /ɔ/ port, Lord, ward /u/ full, pull, would /u:/ fool, pool, coup /Λ/ fun, cut, tongue /ᴈ:/ first, nurse, word /ə/ again, away, forget   Diphthongs /ei/ eight, gate, stable /əv/ go, boat, toe /ai/ bite, fight, die /au/ how, south, doubt /ɔi/ boy, oil, toy /iə/ fear, hear, cheer /eə/ fare, hair, bare /əu/ sure, poor, tour   Consonants: There are twenty-four consonants in the English Language. They are /p/ People, deep, stipend /b/ ball, debate, mob /t/ take, mistake, boat /d/ do, admit,mad /k/ can, kettle, suck /g/ gun, bag, again /ts/ church, watch, butcher /d ɜ/ judge, joy, bridge /f/ fever, safe, father /v/… Read More »THE VOWEL AND THE CONSONANTS

English Language

Nominalization of Infinitives

Nominalization is the changing of a part of speech into a noun by the addition of a suffix Verbs                                                                         Nouns Advise                                                                        advice Apologise                                                                  apology Authorise                                                                  authority Choose                                                                      Choice Fail                                                                              failure Fix                                                                               fixture Hate                                                                           hatred Enjoy                                                                         enjoyment Know                                                                         knowledge Live                                                                             life Oppose                                                                     opposition Obey                                                                          obedience Secure                                                                       security Rob                                                                             robbery See                                                                             sight Speak                                                                         speech Serve                                                                         service Think                                                                          thought Strike                                                                         stroke Weight                                                                      weight     Non-Restrictive Clause: In the non-restrictive, the clause provides additional information to the subject and is marked with commas. Examples The young lawyer, who is 25, gave the closing remark. The house, which has been renovated, looks very new. The book, about which so much has been said, is not interesting. The principal, who I told you about, is a sadist. My brother, who lives in Abuja, visited me last week.   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION TAGS

English Language

LEXIS AND STRUCTURE

Lexis refers to the vocabulary or the entire stock of words in a language. The English language examination seeks to test the scope of the candidate’s vocabulary and his skills to use appropriate words in a given context. It covers such aspects as the use of items in various areas of human endeavour.   In the study of English grammatical structure, we learn how words combine with other words of form larger units. A list of words, expressions or terms that are regularly used in relation to a particular subject-matter or associated with a particular area of human activity and development is referred to as a register.

English Language

Formal Letters

These are letters we write to people in their official positions. Features of a formal letter Writer’s Address and Date: This is written at the top right hand corner. The date is written beneath the address. Receiver’s Address: This is written at the left hand corner beneath the writer’s address. Salutation: The acceptable salutation is Dear Sir or Dear Madam. Heading or Topic or Title: This is written below the salutation Introduction: This should be straight forward and precise Body of the letter: This should consist of at least three well developed paragraph. Conclusion: this should be done in a paragraph. Subscript (Complimentary close): The acceptable closing is ‘Yours faithfully’ followed by a comma. The signature is appended beneath the closing with the full name written below the signature.   Sample Question: Write a letter to the Commissioner of Education, informing him about the plan of your council to engage… Read More »Formal Letters

English Language

ANSWERING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

HOW ANSWERING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS.  Comprehension means understanding. Useful hints on answering comprehension questions. Read the passage carefully and quickly to get what it is all about. Read the questions that follow it. Read the passage all over again, this time jotting down points that will help you to answer the questions. Write out your answers in clear, correct English Read over your answers to ensure that there are no mistakes. Note: In the process of answering comprehension questions, you are advised to obey the instructions to the letter. No information which is not required should be given. Never give two answers where one is demanded. When replacing a word in the passage, test your equivalent in the passage to see if the original meaning of the passage or sentence has been retained.   Other hints are: If you are told to give a one-word answer, do not give more than… Read More »ANSWERING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

English Language

REQUIREMENT OF THE EXAMINATION ON ORALS

REQUIREMENT OF THE EXAMINATION ON ORALS  The aspects of oral English tested in the examination include the following: vowels, consonants, rhymes, word-stress, emphatic stress and phonetic symbols. Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs. Consonants: There are twenty four consonants in the English language. They are classified into three groups, place of articulation, manner of articulation and state of the glottis. Word-stress: This refers to the amount of pressure exerted when pronouncing a particular syllable of a word. The syllable with the stress is marked with a slash at the top in the dictionary. Emphatic Stress: This is the stressing of particular word more than other words in a sentence. Such  a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence. Rhymes: When two or more words have a similar sound at the end, they are… Read More »REQUIREMENT OF THE EXAMINATION ON ORALS

English Language

Latin Expression used in English

Latin Expression used in English  Lating was the language of the ancient Romans. Nowadays, few people in Europe elsewhere learn Latin, but until the past 70 years or so, it was a language learn I virtually every educated person. Here are some Latin expressions that are part of the English language ad hoc: Intended for a particular purpose ad infinitum: for ever ad nauseam: to the point of making one sick bona fide: genuine Curriculum vitae: a summary of a person’s qualifications and career, used to support an application for a job. De facto: in practice De jure: by right Et cetera: and the rest Exempli gratia: for the sake of an example, generally abbreviated to e.g. ex officio: by the virtue of one’s position Id est: that is, often abbreviated to i.e impromptu: unprepared in extremis: in extreme conditions persona non grata: an unwelcome person ultra vires: beyond one’s… Read More »Latin Expression used in English

English Language

CONTRASTING STRESS

The stressing of a particular word more than other words in a sentence is referred to as emphatic or contrastive stress. Such as a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence. Examples JAMES borrowed the novel (i.e James not anybody else borrowed it) James BORROWED the novel. (i.e. James didn’t, for example, steal or buy the novel, he borrowed it.) We MUST honour the invitation. (wether we like it or not) I BOUGHT the book. (I didn’t steal it) This is THE Mr. Obi. (of special fame)   Comprehension: Meteors The passage is adopted from the New Atlas of the Universe by Patrick More. It centre on Meteors, the junior member of th solar system. They are small and very plentiful in the solar system. There are two types of Meteors; showers and sporadic meteor.   See also ENGLISH LANGUAGE Astronomy PUNCTUATION Capitalization QUESTION… Read More »CONTRASTING STRESS

English Language

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech This refers to the quoting by a speaker or writer, of the actual utterance of another speaker or writer. This is usually indicated by the use of quotation marks, opening and closing. Examples Chuks said, ‘I will return next month, by the grace of God.’ In the word of Shakespeare ‘Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.’ Their pastor always says,’we owe nothing to ourselves but owe everything to God.’ According to Acheb,’Proverbs are the palm oil with which the Igbo eat their words., ‘We have neither been fed nor accommodated since we arrived yesterday, ’the visitors complained bitterly.   Features of Direct Speech The direct speech is enclosed with inverted commas, opening an closing. It is usually followed by a reporting verb, which may be in the past or present; for example; ‘she said’. Sometimes, the direct speech is introduced by such expressions as; ‘According to…’… Read More »Direct and Indirect Speech

School Portal NG
error: Content is protected !!