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English Language (All Classes)

English Language

Structure – Making Uncountable Nouns Countable

The focus here is to see how uncountable nouns can be made countable. Countable nouns are those we can count, they usually have singular and plural forms Example:   girl – girls box – boxes man – men ox – oxen Uncountable nouns are those that cannot be counted, and they therefore have only the singular form. Examples: sand, rice, sugar, water, soup, advice, information, furniture, equipment, blood, knowledge, etc. Uncountable nouns can however be made countable in the following ways: Using partitives A partitive is a word or phrase that indicates a part or quantity of something as distinct from a whole. Also called noun partitive. Partitivesappear before noncount nouns as well as count nouns.   Example:         a piece/chunk of meat abottle of wine acube/pack of sugar. aplate/pot of soup atin of milk. afit of anger aglass/cup of water adrop/pint of blood aloaf of bread abar of chocolate a… Read More »Structure – Making Uncountable Nouns Countable

English Language

Essay Writing – Articles

An article is a piece of writing on any subject of public interest, specifically for publication in a magazine or a newspaper. The topics of such articles may be narrative, descriptive, argumentative or expository. It is important to recognize the audience for which the article is written as this determines the tone and language. The audience may be large or limited. The article however should have a mass appeal or to be able to appeal to a large number of people with different biological, psychological and social background at the same time. Rudiments of Good Article Writing Write just the title of the article and go straight to the introductory paragraph. Make sure to give your article a catchy title Make the tone and language suitable for the audience specified Go straight to the point The body must be well-organised and developed strictly respecting the writing style or clarity, originality,… Read More »Essay Writing – Articles

English Language

Structure – More about Phrasal Verbs

Remember phrasal verbs are made up of verbs followed by a prepositions or adverbs – particles. The meanings of these combinations, as already known, cannot be determined in isolation, rather they have to be comprehended from the entire phrase. These meanings can sometimes be obvious or obscure. When the meaning is obscure, it becomes idiomatic. On the other hand, if the meaning is obvious it becomes non-idiomatic. Some phrasal verbs can express single meaning while in some cases, a single phrasal verb may have different meanings. Phrasal verb with obvious meaning Example:         They waited for him to come down They were sitting down Phrasal verb with obscure meaning Example:         The convict broke down (lost control of his feelings) Did you catch on (understand)? I will not be surprised if he goes back on his words (= breaks his promise) Phrasal verbs with same meaning. Example:         After completing his prison… Read More »Structure – More about Phrasal Verbs

English Language

Comprehension – Reading for Critical Evaluation

The passage reveals the main criticism of Nigerian film and television. It explains that most programmes have no relevance to the Nigerian culture. More so, the funds generated for the Nigerian film industry are usually in the wrong hands. EVALUATION Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. READING ASSIGNMENT Countdown in English, pg 169 Structure – Introduction to Sequence of Tenses Sequence of tenses is the principle which requires all the verbs in a sentence or a number of sentences to be in the same tense all through. Example: Today is my happiest day. At last, I have completed my project. I am now free to do anything I like – Present tense The match had already begun when we got there, so we decided to wait and watch the second half which started an hour after – Past tense   It is however sometimes possible to have… Read More »Comprehension – Reading for Critical Evaluation

English Language

Speech Work – Rhyme Scheme

Another aspect of Test of Orals which students must be very familiar with is rhyme. Rhyme occurs when words end in same sound. To be more precise, two words rhyme with each other when they have: Same vowel ending. Example:         go        –           know do        –           sue buy      –           thigh Same final consonants (or consonant cluster sequence) Example:         worst   –           burst count   –           amount just      –           dust Same final vowel and consonant. Example:         half      –           laugh receive-            deceive   EVALUATION From the words lettered A – D, choose the word that rhyme with the given word done gone           B. pen              C. dawn          D. don shook hoot            B. hook           C. roof             D. soak amend rescind        B. abound       C. resent          D. depend pale palm           B. abound       C. resent          D. depend   READING ASSINGMENT Countdown in English, pg 312.   Structure: Pronoun Types In the first series, we saw the use… Read More »Speech Work – Rhyme Scheme

English Language

Comprehension – Reading for Implied Meanings

It is important to realize that, when reading, the writer sometimes takes for granted that the reader knows something about the thing he writes. He expects that you will be prepared to piece together the information he gives you and draw conclusions from the information. It is your job then to read for implied meanings. You can do this by: Reading the questions before, during and at the end of reading assignment Linking ideas to follow the writer’s line of thought Bringing in what you know from your background to help understand the reading assignment. Testing any conclusions you draw against information given.   The passage on page 168, Effective English, focuses on the misdemeanor committed by a prefect who got a junior student pregnant. He had to be publicly caned an unprecedented thirty – six strokes.   EVALUATION Read and answer the questions which accompany it.   READING ASSIGNMENT… Read More »Comprehension – Reading for Implied Meanings

English Language

Essay Writing (Formal Letters): Letters of Complaints

Remember that formal letters are letters to offices rather than persons, and so are regarded as impersonal letters. As such, they should neither contain personal greetings nor discussion of personal affairs. They include. Letters to offices and business houses Applying for jobs. Making requests. Replying to official letters Complaining about a faulty product etc. Placing orders for books, shoes etc. Invitations, notices, memos, advertisement, circulars Letters to institutions asking for admission, permission or making complaints Letters to editors of newspapers, magazines etc. on topics of public interest   The focus here is letters of complaints. These are letters written to address issues that displease the writer and for which he or she would like to express himself. The opening paragraph, contain expressions, like … I regret to inform you that … I feel sad to inform you that …. The closing paragraph contains expressions such as: I look forward to… Read More »Essay Writing (Formal Letters): Letters of Complaints

English Language

Structure – Punctuation Marks; Comma, Semicolon, Question Mark and Colon

Punctuation marks are the marks or signs inserted in a piece of writing to mark off words or groups of words. The use of punctuation marks makes for effective presentation of ideas. Comma ( , ) The comma is used …… To mark off words in a list. Example:   She gave us two pencils, four rulers and pens. To mark off phrases or clauses; Example:   Having seen her son, she felt relieved. To mark off non-defining relative clauses; Example:   Mr. kargbo, who happens to be a lawyer, is aware of our situation. To mark off main clauses linked by a conjunction such as and, or, but, as ,for. Example:   They have been complaining about their flight since five years ago, but unfortunately, the management has not paid any attention In direct speech, to separate the speech (in quotes) from non-speech. Example:   She said, “Run as fast as you can”… Read More »Structure – Punctuation Marks; Comma, Semicolon, Question Mark and Colon

English Language

REVISION OF LAST TERM’S EXAMINATION

Structure – Use of Possessive Apostrophe The apostrophe ( ’ ) has three uses: contractions plurals and possessives. It is used with ‘s’ toshow possession. The formation of possessive is treated in different ways. Formation of Possessives The possessive of the singular noun is formed by adding ‘s’ (apostrophe and ‘s) Example:Ada’s medical book. The child’s toy. Father’s retirement The possessive of a plural noun is formed by adding only an apostrophe when the noun ends in ‘s’ Example: Girls’ hostel Horses’ tail The boys’ baseball team. The possessive of the plurals not ending with ‘s’ is formed by adding apostrophe and ‘s’ Example:         Men’s club Children’s Day. Nouns having several words must have their possessive only to the last word. Example:         The President of Nigeria’s speech. The Prime Minister of India’s visit to Japan. The door of my friend’s house. Two nouns having close association must have… Read More »REVISION OF LAST TERM’S EXAMINATION

English Language

SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

Remote Sensing is defined as the act of obtaining information about an object without being in direct contact with the object. A satellite is an artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or on another planet to collect information or for communication. Satellite remote sensing is a satellite that study the earth’s surface and atmosphere.   APPLICATION OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING Satellite remote sensing can be applied in various field of life such as forestry, agriculture, environment, telecommunication, transportation etc. Energy is the capacity to do work. Energy can take many forms such as light, heat or sound, and it can be transmitted between objects through three processes which are: Conduction: The objects are in direct physical contact. Energy is transferred from the high energy object to the low energy object until both objects are at the same energy level. Convection: This occurs in liquid and gases. It is… Read More »SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

English Language

Review of Tenses

Tenses occur only in verbs. Tense refers to the changes that take place in the form of the verb to indicate time. Only two tenses, namely the present and the past, can be identified. The Present Tense: The only change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate the present tense occurs when the verb agrees with a third person singular subject. Examples Singular                                I sleep, wake and eat You sleep, wake and eat He sleeps, wake and eat   Plural                     We sleep, wake and eat You sleep, wake and eat They sleep, wake and eat   The Past Tense: Regular verbs form their past by adding. ‘ed’ to the simple form of the verb, while irregular verbs from their past tense in different ways. Examples: Ume worked in the farm yesterday. (regular) Ada spoke to me on the telephone (irregular) Evaluation: Exercise 1, Question 1, page… Read More »Review of Tenses

English Language

Vowel and the Consonants

Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English Language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs. Pure vowels /i:/ Seat, Cheap, Sheep /i/ sit, chip, ship /e/ set, bread, friend /ᴂ/ Sat, Chat, match /a:/ Far, pass, father /ɔ/ Dog, hot, what /ɔ/ port, Lord, ward /u/ full, pull, would /u:/ fool, pool, coup /Λ/ fun, cut, tongue /ᴈ:/ first, nurse, word /ə/ again, away, forget Diphthongs /ei/ eight, gate, stable /əv/ go, boat, toe /ai/ bite, fight, die /au/ how, south, doubt /ɔi/ boy, oil, toy /iə/ fear, hear, cheer /eə/ fare, hair, bare /əu/ sure, poor, tour Evaluation: Exercise 1, Question C, nos 11 – 20, page 30, Oral English for School and Colleges.   Consonants: There are twenty-four consonants in the English Language. They are /p/ People, deep, stipend /b/ ball, debate, mob /t/ take, mistake, boat /d/ do, admit,mad /k/ can, kettle, suck /g/ gun,… Read More »Vowel and the Consonants

English Language

Requirement of the Examination on Orals

The aspects of oral English tested in the examination include the following: vowels, consonants, rhymes, word-stress, emphatic stress and phonetic symbols. Vowels: There are twenty vowels in the English language. They include twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs. Consonants: There are twenty four consonants in the English language. They are classified into three groups, place of articulation, manner of articulation and state of the glottis. Word-stress: This refers to the amount of pressure exerted when pronouncing a particular syllable of a word. The syllable with the stress is marked with a slash at the top in the dictionary. Emphatic Stress: This is the stressing of particular word more than other words in a sentence. Such  a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence. Rhymes: When two or more words have a similar sound at the end, they are said to rhyme. Evaluation: Exercise 1,… Read More »Requirement of the Examination on Orals

English Language

Nominalization of Infinitives | Nouns, Verbs & Clauses

Nominalization is the changing of a part of speech into a noun by the addition of a suffix Verbs                                                                                                    Nouns Advise                                                                                                  advice Apologise                                                                                            apology Authorise                                                                                            authority Choose                                                                                                 Choice Fail                                                                                                         failure Fix                                                                                                          fixture Hate                                                                                                      hatred Enjoy                                                                                                     enjoyment Know                                                                                                    knowledge Live                                                                                                        life Oppose                                                                                                opposition Obey                                                                                                     obedience Secure                                                                                                  security Rob                                                                                                        robbery See                                                                                                        sight Speak                                                                                                    speech Serve                                                                                                    service Think                                                                                                     thought Strike                                                                                                    stroke Weight                                                                                                 weight   Non-Restrictive Clause: In the non-restrictive, th clause provides additional information to the subject and is marked with commas. Examples The young lawer, who is 25, gave the closing remark. The house, which has been renovated, looks very new. The book, about… Read More »Nominalization of Infinitives | Nouns, Verbs & Clauses

English Language

Formal & Informal Letters

Formal Letters These are letters we write to people in their official positions. Features of a formal letter Writer’s Address and Date: This is written at the top right hand corner. The date is written beneath the address. Receiver’s Address: This is written at the left hand corner beneath the writer’s address. Salutation: The acceptable salutation is Dear Sir or Dear Madam. Heading or Topic or Title: This is written below the salutation Introduction: This should be straight forward and precise Body of the letter: This should consist of at least three well developed paragraph. Conclusion: this should be done in a paragraph. Subscript (Complimentary close): The acceptable closing is ‘Yours faithfully’ followed by a comma.The signature is appended beneath the closing with the full name written below the signature.   Sample Question: Write a letter to the Commissioner of Education, informing him about the plan of your council to… Read More »Formal & Informal Letters

English Language

Contrasting stress

The stressing of a particular word more than other words in a sentence is referred to as emphatic or contrastive stress. Such as a stress normally have its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence. Examples JAMES borrowed the novel (i.e James not anybody else borrowed it) James BORROWED the novel. (i.e. James didn’t, for example, steal or buy the novel, he borrowed it.) We MUST honour the invitation. (wether we like it or not) I BOUGHT the book. (I didn’t steal it) This is THE Mr. Obi. (of special fame) Evaluation: Test on Emphatic stress, page 255, countdown to English Topic: Comprehension: Meteors The passage is adopted from the New Atlas of the Universe by Patrick More. It centre on Meteors, the junior member of th solar system. They are small and very plentiful in the solar system. There are two types of Meteors; showers and sporadic… Read More »Contrasting stress

English Language

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech: This refers to the quoting by a speaker or writer, of the actual utterance of another speaker or writer. This is usually indicated by the use of quotation marks, opening and closing. Examples Obioma said, ‘I will return next month, by the grace of God.’ In the word of Shakespeare ‘Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.’ Their pastor always says,’we owe nothing to ourselves but owe everything to God.’ According to Acheb,’Proverbs are the palm oil with which the Igbo eat their words., ‘We have neither been fed nor accommodated since we arrived yesterday, ’the visitors complained bitterly. Features of Direct Speech The direct speech is enclosed with inverted commas, opening an closing. It is usually followed by a reporting verb, which may be in the past or present; for example; ‘she said’. Sometimes, the direct speech is introduced by such expressions as; ‘According to…’ The… Read More »Direct and Indirect Speech

English Language

Vocabulary: Latin Expression used in English

Lating was the language of the ancient Romans. Nowadays, few people in Europe elsewhere learn Latin, but until the past 70 years or so, it was a language learn I virtually every educated person. Here are some Latin expressions that are part of the English language ad hoc: Intended for a particular purpose ad infinitum: for ever ad nauseam: to the point of making one sick bona fide: genuine Curriculum vitae: a summary of a person’s qualifications and career, used to support an application for a job. De facto: in practice De jure: by right Et cetera: and the rest Exempli gratia: for the sake of an example, generally abbreviated to e.g ex officio: by the virtue of one’s position Id est: that is, often abbreviated to i.e impromptu: unprepared in extremis: in extreme conditions persona non grata: an unwelcome person ultra vires: beyond one’s powers, said when a person… Read More »Vocabulary: Latin Expression used in English

English Language

Speech Writing

Characteristic of a written speech Formal Salutation (vocatives); There is always an audience to be addressed. In formal situations, people are usually appointed to perform one function or the other. Social ethics demand that you recognize and accord due respect to those at the high table and other dignitaries present at the occasion. The use of personal pronouns; The speaker often personalizes his speech by the use of personal pronouns such A I, you, we, he, etc. Which reflects actual speech. Use of short forms; Speeches are often characterized by the use of short forms of words and sentences E.g. Sam (for Samuel), I’m ( I am) can’t (cannot) don’t (do not) Introducing the Topic: After the salutation, the next logical thing to do is to introduce your topic. Whatever, your topic is, try to introduce it in an interesting manner, showing in one way other that you hold your… Read More »Speech Writing

English Language

Clauses | Definition, Types & Functions

A clause is a group of words with finite verb. A clause should have a subject and a predicate. e.g. Idowu bought a piece of land. Subject: Idowu Predicate – bought a piece of land Types of Clause There are two types of clauses. Independent clauses: These are also called main or principal clauses. An independent calsuse expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence. e.g. My English master is a kind man. Dependent Clause: These are also called subordinate clauses. A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence. It depends on an independent clause for its meaning E.g. which he recommended. There are three types of subordinate clauses. Noun Clauses A noun clause is a subordinate clause that has a noun as the head word. A noun clause performs the functions of a noun.… Read More »Clauses | Definition, Types & Functions

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