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**ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COUNTING DEVICES**

Electro-mechanical counting devices are those counting devices that could be operated both electrically and mechanically

These includes the following

- Blaise Pascal Machine
- Gottfried Leibniz Machine
- Joseph Jacquard Loom
- Charles Babbage Analytical Engine

(1)** BLAISE PASCAL CALCULATING MACHINE**: Blaise Pascal was a French man who invented a new kind of computer in 1642. The machine consisted of wheels for the individual digits in a number. Each wheel had ten notches, numbered “0” to “9”. When a wheel was turned seven notches. It added 7 to the total on the machine. Blaise Pascal Calculating Machine and not Electra-mechanical like others listed below.

(2) **GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ MACHINE**: Leibniz improved on Pascal’s adding machine so that it can calculate square roots.

(3) **CHARLES BABBAGE ANALYTICAL ENGINE/MACHINE**: Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more difficult designs.

He sought a method by which mathematical tables could be calculated mechanically, removing the high rate of human error. He began in 1822 with what he called difference engine made to compute values of polynomial functions, the machine calculates series of values automatically by using the method of finite differences.

Later in 1833, Babbage invented the analytical machine which is more complex that the difference engine and this analytical engine, could be programmed using punch cards.

Computer memory is referred to as computer components, devices and recorded media that retains digital data used for computing for some period of time. Computer memory or storage device are broadly classified into primary memory and secondary memory.

**Evaluation: **

- Mention four electro mechanical counting device
- Mention the uses of Pascal’s Machine
- In what year was difference and analytical engine invented.

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