DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
- Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by narrowing of air passages.
- Due to pollen, dust, fur, animal hair, spores among others.
- If these substances are inhaled, they trigger release of chemical substances and they may cause swelling of the bronchioles and bring about an asthma attack. Heredity
- Asthma is usually associated with certain disorders which tend to occur in more than one member of a given family, thus suggesting’ a hereditary tendency.
Emotional or mental stress
- Strains the body immune system hence predisposes to asthma attack.
- Asthma is characterized by wheezing and difficulty in breathing accompanied by feeling of tightness in the chest as a result of contraction of the smooth muscles lining the air passages.
Treatment and Control
- There is no definite cure for asthma.
- The best way where applicable is to avoid whatever triggers an attack (allergen).
- Treatment is usually by administering drugs called bronchodilators.
- The drugs are inhaled, taken orally or injected intravenously depending on severity of attack to relief bronchial spasms.
- This is an inflammation of bronchial tubes.
- This is due to an infection of bronchi and bronchioles by bacteria and viruses.
- Difficulty in breathing.
- Cough that produces mucus.
- Antibiotics are administered.
- Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that results in destruction of the lung tissue.
- Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Human tuberculosis is spread through droplet infection i.e., in saliva and sputum.
- Tuberculosis can also spread from cattle to man through contaminated milk.
- From a mother suffering from the disease to a baby through breast feeding.
- The disease is currently on the rise due to the lowered immunity in persons with HIV and AIDS (Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
- Tuberculosis is common in areas where there is dirt, overcrowding and malnourishment.
- It is characterized by a dry cough, lack of breath and body wasting.
- Proper nutrition with a diet rich in proteins and vitamins to boost immunity.
- Isolation of sick persons reduces its spread.
- Utensils used by the sick should be sterilized by boiling.
- Avoidance of crowded places and living in well ventilated houses.
- Immunization with B.C.G. vaccine gives protection against tuberculosis.
- This is done a few days after birth with subsequent boosters.
- Treatment is by use of antibiotics.
- Pneumonia is infection resulting in inflammation of lungs.
- The alveoli get filled with fluid and bacterial cells decreasing surface are for gaseous exchange.
- Pneumonia is caused by bacteria and virus.
- More infections occur during cold weather.
- The old and the weak in health are most vulnerable.
- Pain in the chest accompanied by a fever, high body temperatures (39-40°C) and general body weakness.
- Maintain good health through proper feeding.
- Avoid extreme cold.
- If the condition is caused by pneumococcus bacteria, antibiotics are administered.
- If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be given using an oxygen mask.
- Whooping cough is an acute infection of respiratory tract.
- The disease is more common in children under the age of five but adults may also be affected.
- It is caused by Bordetella pertusis bacteria and is usually spread by droplets produced when a sick person coughs.
- Severe coughing and frequent vomiting.
- Thick sticky mucus is produced.
- Severe broncho-pneumonia.
- Convulsions in some cases.
- Children may be immunized against whooping cough by means of a vaccine which is usually combined with those against diphtheria and tetanus.
- It is called “Triple Vaccine” or Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus (DPT).
- Antibiotics are administered.
- To reduce the coughing, the patient should be given drugs.
Practical Activities Observation of permanent slides of terrestrial and aquatic leaves and stems Leaves
- Observation of T.S. of bean and water lily are made under low and ‘medium power objectives. Stomata and air space are seen.
- Labelled drawings of each are made.
- The number and distribution of stomata on the lower and upper leaf surface is noted.
- Also the size of air spaces and their distribution. Stem
- Prepared slides (TS) of stems of terrestrial and aquatic plants such as croton and reeds are obtained.
- Observations under low power and medium power of a microscope are made.
- Labelled drawings are made and the following are noted:
- Lenticels on terrestrial stems.
- Large air spaces (aerenchyma) in aquatic stems.