NIGERIAN NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (NNDP)
OBJECTIVES OF THE NNDP
- The upgrading of Lagos to a municipality with its own absolute self-government
- Co-ordination of the nomination and election of the Lagos members of the Legislative council
- The improvement of higher education opportunities and the introduction and spread of compulsory education throughout Nigeria
- The spread of the party by establishing branches in all areas of Nigeria
- Working together with the national congress of British West Africa in support of its programmes for their mutual benefit.
Herbert Macaulay was the founder and leader of the NNDP, and the main force behind the party until his death in 1946. Egerton Shyngle was the party’s first president; T. H. Jackson was its first honorary secretary while J. C Zizer was the first solicitor.
It won the three Lagos seats in the legislative council in 1923, 1928 and 1933.
THE NIGERIAN YOUTH MOVEMEENT (NYM)
The movement was led by Dr. J. C. Vaughan, H. O. Davies, Ernest Ikoli and Samuel Akinsanya was formerly called Lagos Youth Movement. It became Nigerian Youth Movement in 1963 and later had other prominent members including Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe, Akintola Maja, Dr. Kofo Abayomi, Jubril Martins, S. L. Akintola, Obafemi Awolowo, S. O. Sonibare and Mobolaji Bank Anthony.
OBJECTIVES OF THE NYM
- Complete independence within the British Empire
- Unification of ethnic groups in Nigeria by encouraging them towards better understanding and co-operation
- Promotion of public enlightenment and social and educational awareness
- Voting rights for all adult citizens
- The abrogation of indirect rule and grant of self-rule to Nigerian.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NYM
- In 1938, the NYM won the election into the Lagos Town Council and all the three elective seats allocated to Lagos in the legislative council, thus displacing the NNDP as the number one party in Lagos.
- It gave birth to Nationalism
- Daily service newspaper was established
- The NYM promoted Nigerian unity and national consciousness by its nationwide organization and membership.
THE ACTION GROUP (AG)
The Action Group was formed in March 1951 by members of Egbe Omo Oduduwa, a cultural organization formed in 1945 in London by some Yoruba students. Obafemi Awolowo was elected president and Bode Thomas as secretary.
OBJECTIVES OF THE ACTION GROUP
- To promote mass literacy and qualitative education
- To contest elections and win political power in the Western Region
- To co-operate with all ethnic organization and nationalist groups towards the attainment of quick self-rule for Nigeria.
ACHIEVEMENT OF THE ACTION GROUP
- The action group played a very important role in the struggle for independence. Infact Anthony Enahoro member of this party moved the motion for self-government by 1956
- It won many elections in Western region and greatly developed the region
- It was the AG that first introduced free primary education in Nigeria in 1955.
- The party won many seats to become the opposition party in the eastern region and at the federal legislature
- It was the best financial and best administered political party between 1951 and 1962 in Nigeria.
NORTHERN PEOPLES CONGRESS (NPC)
The NPC metamorphosed from a cultural organization called Jamiyaa Jama’ar Arewa i.e. The congress of northern Nigeria in 1952, Sir Ahmadu Bello became the leader of the party and in 1954 the premier of Northern Nigeria.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NPC
- It controlled the federal government in the first republic and produced the first prime minster of Nigeria
- The party also controlled the government of Northern region till January 1966
- The NPC represented Northern region in all the constitutional conferences that led Nigeria to independence
- It fostered understanding and co-operation among the northerners.
- Read French policy of assimilation
- Read political parties in the second and third republic in Nigeria
- Practice past WASSCE question papers.
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PROBLEMS OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM
FEATURES OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM
THE INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960
LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION OF 1954