What is Data: Data is the raw material for data processing. It is a representation of unprocessed facts about people, places, events, objects, or transactions recorded from which information can be prepared.

It can be represented with the help of character like alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters (+,-, /, *, <,>, =).

Methods of Gathering Data

(1) By counting, using counters and also by measuring using tape, etc.

(2) By observation carried out by people e.g. sales at a super market.

(3) Using Questionnaires

(4) Through Interviews

(5) Filling of form e.g. by candidates seeking admission into schools.



  • Alphabetic
  • Numeric
  • Alpha-numeric
  • Symbolic
  • Alphabetic Data: The alphabetic data are those data that consist of letters. Examples are John , Peter, W, E
  • Numeric Data: This contain/consist of numbers. It is also known as numeric data. For example 177, 23, 1234
  • Alpha-numeric Data: Alpha-numeric data are data that consist of both Alphabetic (letters) and numbers e.g. Nigeria 2015, Yabatech 2020, etc.
  • Symbolic Data: It consist of data with symbols, Data with any form of symbols are called symbolic data e.g.? <, >, =, +, -, (,), etc.

What is Information:

Information comes in different forms which includes

  • Visual: This is a graphical or pictorial form e.g. artistic, photographic, and other forms of representations.
  • Written: This form of information is written, it is hand-written or printed, they mean the same written form of information e.g. letters, newsletters, newspaper, memos, etc.
  • Oral: Information form from spoken words, or communicated by mouth.
  • Sensory: Information form from the five sense organs. They are also forms of information.
  • Historical: These are information form from past records, about events, activities, transactions, which has happened in the past e.g. educational records, medical records, etc.


The teacher evaluates the topic by asking the students the following questions

  1. Define data
  2. What is information?
  3. How can data be gathered?


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