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Creative and Common Art (CCA)

CCA (secondary school)

ELEMENTS OF ART/DESIGN

Element of art means the things or items that constitute an art or artworks .They are the ingredients that make up an art work. The elements and principles of design are the building blocks used to create a work of art. The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make up a painting, drawing, design etc. Good or bad – all paintings will contain most of if not all, the seven elements of design.   A work of art can be analyzed by considering a variety of aspects of it individually. These aspects are often called the elements of art. A commonly used list of the main elements include form, line, color, space and texture. Line Lines and curves are marks that span a distance between two points (or the path of a moving point). As an element of visual art, line is the use of various marks, outlines and… Read More »ELEMENTS OF ART/DESIGN

CCA (secondary school)

REVIEW OF CHORD AND TRIADS

A chord is any combination of three or more pitch classes that sound simultaneously. A three-note chord whose pitch classes can be arranged as thirds is called a triad. To quickly determine whether a three-note chord is a triad, arrange the three notes on the “circle of thirds” below. The pitch classes of a triad will always sit next to each other. Identifying and labeling triads Triads are identified according to their root and quality. Triad roots To find a triad’s root, arrange the pitch classes on a circle of thirds (mentally or on paper). The root is the lowest in the three-pitch-class clump. Expressed another way, if the circle ascends by thirds as it moves clockwise, the root is the “earliest” note (thinking like a literal clock), and the other pitch classes come “later.” Oance you know the root, you can identify the remaining notes as the third of the chord (a third above the root) and the fifth of the… Read More »REVIEW OF CHORD AND TRIADS

CCA (secondary school)

EMBROIDERY

Embroidery is the handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, embroidery is usually seen on caps, hats, coats, blankets, dress shirts, denim, dresses, stockings, and golf shirts. Embroidery is available with a wide variety of thread or yarn color.   Some of the basic techniques or stitches of the earliest embroidery are chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch. Those stitches remain the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery today. Origins The process used to tailor, patch, mend and reinforce cloth fostered the development of sewing techniques, and the decorative possibilities of sewing led to the art of embroidery. Indeed, the remarkable stability of basic embroidery stitches has been noted:   It is a striking fact that in the development of embroidery … there are no changes of materials or techniques which can be felt or interpreted as advances from a primitive to a later,… Read More »EMBROIDERY

CCA (secondary school)

OPPORTUNITIES FOR CAREER DRAMATISTS

Drama as a Source of Job Creation Nigeria is a country that has many rural areas. Many of these rural areas have no electricity therefore, recreational facilities are often in scarce supply. Thus, many people (adults and youths) tend to gather in groups under trees, in sheds, or on verandas to while away the time in conversations. Entertainment in most rural areas occur during festivals and ceremonies such as new yam festival, initiation ceremony, wedding, naming, Christmas, Sallah and other religious festivals.   The boredom experienced in rural areas should galvanize dramatic performance for the steady entertainment of the people all year round. In other words, in Nigeria as a developing country, it is the social responsibility of the government to provide jobs for the citizenry as well as recreational facilities for their relaxation. These are an obligation that every responsible and responsive government should think of carrying out. The… Read More »OPPORTUNITIES FOR CAREER DRAMATISTS

CCA (secondary school)

SIGHT READING SINGING

Sight-reading is the reading and performing of a piece of music or song in music notation that the performer has not seen before.    Sight-singing is used to describe a singer who is sight-reading. Both activities require the musician to play or sing the notated rhythms and pitches. Many believe that sight-singing is the more challenging of the two, because singers do not have any keys, frets or valves (on keyboard instruments, guitars, and valved brass instruments, respectively) to help them obtain the correct pitches. Singers must also read and sing the correct lyrics, which adds another layer beyond pitch and dynamics. However, difficulty is related both to the instrument and the difficulty of the piece itself. For instance, sight-reading on a polyphonic instrument, such as the classical guitar, can be more challenging due to the fact that the guitarist has to read polyrhythms and polyphonic passages that can often be played in different positions using different… Read More »SIGHT READING SINGING

CCA (secondary school)

CONTEMPORARY NIGERIAN ARTS AND ARTISTS

PROMINENT CONTEMPORARY ARTIST Ullier Bier was the main motivator of the Ibadan Mbari club which succeeded I bringing together all kind of creativity in the arts in 1961.   Ulllier Bierrand his wife Georgina Susanne Wenger cater found the Oshogbo School of Arts where many of the Nigerian contemporary artist were produced. Such artist are Twin Seven-Seven, Jimoh Buraimoh, Jacob Afolabi, Rufus Ogundele, Muraina Oyelami, Adebisi and Lasisi Gbadamosi. The Enugu Mbari produced a different set of young artist like Inyong, Emmanuel Nzo  Ndubuisi.   LITERARY NIGERIAN CONTEMPORARY ARTIST Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka, CHRISTOPHEROKIGBO, J. P. Clark, Anos Tutuola.   STUDIO ARTIST CONTEMPORARY ARTIST Aina Onabolu, Akinola Labeka, Professor Ben Enwoyi, Bruce Onabrakeya, Yusuf Grillo, Kolade Oshinnowo, Ladi Kwali, Eghabor Emokpae, Uche and Lamidi Fakeye.   DRAMATIC PERFORMANING CONTEMPORARY ARTIST Olaniyi Oseni (Twin 77), Hubert Ogunde e.t.c.   ART EDUCATOR CONTEMPORARY ARTIST Professor Solomon Ireiwangboje, Udo Emma, T. A. Fasayi,… Read More »CONTEMPORARY NIGERIAN ARTS AND ARTISTS

CCA (secondary school)

MUSIC COMPOSITION

Compositional instrumentation The task of adapting a composition for different musical ensembles is called arranging or orchestration, may be undertaken by the composer or separately by an arranger based on the composer’s core composition.   A composition may have multiple arrangements based on such factors as intended audience type and breadth, musical genre or stylistic treatment, recorded or live performance considerations, available musicians and instruments, commercial goals and economic constraints. Based on such factors, composers, orchestrators and/or arrangers must decide upon the instrumentation of the original work.   In the 2010s, the contemporary composer can virtually write for almost any combination of instruments, ranging from a string section, wind and brass sections used in standard orchestras to electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Some common group settings include music for full orchestra (consisting of strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion), concert band (which consists of larger sections and greater diversity of woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments than are usually found in the orchestra), or a chamber group (a… Read More »MUSIC COMPOSITION

CCA (secondary school)

DRAMA AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

COMMUNITY AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT It was Hannah Arendt in her celebrated article, Power and the Space of Appearance, who opined that we are human beings only when we begin to appear for one another, otherwise we are merely humans. A community that has nothing that connects members together is not a community but a jungle habited by humans and not human beings.   Therefore, the term community goes beyond a mere geographical location or setting where members live together. A community should have three basic elements. The first element is the practice of recognizing common interest and problems and talking, acting/working together for democratic decision making or problem solving. The second element is locality or territory that can be seen as where people have something in common and this shared element also connects the locality with the surrounding areas.   The third element is the local society including the interconnecting association… Read More »DRAMA AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

CCA (secondary school)

MUSIC COMPOSITION

Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers in classical music. In popular music and traditional music, the creators of new songs are usually called songwriters; with songs, the person who writes new words for a song is the lyricist.   “Composition” is the act or practice of creating a song or other piece of music. In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing typically includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music “score”, which is then performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers. In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody, lyrics and chord progression.  … Read More »MUSIC COMPOSITION

CCA (secondary school)

EXHIBITION AND DISPLAY TECNIQUES

An art exhibition is traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience. The exhibit is universally understood to be for some temporary period unless, as is rarely true, it is stated to be a “permanent exhibition”. In American English, they may be called “exhibit”, “exposition” (the French word) or “show”. In UK English, they are always called “exhibitions” or “shows”, and an individual item in the show is an “exhibit”. Such expositions may present pictures, drawings, video, sound, installation, performance, interactive art, new media art or sculptures by individual artists, groups of artists or collections of a specific form of art. The art works may be presented in museums, art halls, art clubs or private art galleries, or at some place the principal business of which is not the display or sale of art, such as a coffeehouse. An important distinction is noted between those exhibits where some or all of the works are for sale, normally in private art galleries, and those where… Read More »EXHIBITION AND DISPLAY TECNIQUES

CCA (secondary school)

USES OF MUSIC

A musical function describes the role that a particular musical element plays in the creation of a larger musical unit. Function is tied very much to the idea of expectation: given a certain element in a certain context, what element(s) is/are likely to come next? Likewise, how does a given element fulfill or deny the expectations set by what came before it? A musical function typically has two defining features: the characteristics of the musical elements that tend to belong to that function (what notes tend to be found in the chord, for example), and the kinds of elements (or functions) that tend to precede or follow it in a succession of musical elements. Note that this is entirely dependent on the typical patterns of a musical style. Different styles of music may exhibit different functions or different behaviors for the same functions. The study of function and the study of style are… Read More »USES OF MUSIC

CCA (secondary school)

NIGERIAN TRADITIONAL ART

Igbo-Ukwu Art Igbo-Ukwu is notable for three archaeological sites, where excavations have found bronze artifacts from a highly sophisticated bronze metal-workingculture dating perhaps to the ninth or tenth century, centuries before other known bronzes of the region. The first, called Igbo Isaiah, was uncovered in 1938 by Isaiah Anozie, a local villager, who found the bronze works while digging beside his home. Five bronze artefacts from the original excavation are now in the British Museum’s collection.[4] They include a small staff, a head of a ram, a large manilla, an intricately designed crescent-shaped vessel and a small pendant in the shape of a tribal chief’s head with tattoo marks on the face. Formal excavations by the archaeologist Thurstan Shaw in 1959 at the request of the Nigerian government, resulted in the discovery of two other sites, Igbo Richard and Igbo Jonah, containing the remains of an ancient culture. Later, these were excavated as well. Artifacts have included jewelry,ceramics, a corpse adorned in what appears to be regalia, and many assorted bronze, copper, and iron objects.… Read More »NIGERIAN TRADITIONAL ART

CCA (secondary school)

TIE-DYE

MEANING OF TIE-DYE Tie-dye is a textile craft in which areas of fabric not intended to be dyed is tied tightly with raffia to resist penetration the moment fabric is dipped into a dye solution. MATERIALS AND TOOLS Materials include: Dye stuff Raffia Rubber gloves Hydrosulphite Caustic soda White cotton fabric Salt Water   Tools include: Bucket Pot and kettle Stick Scissors   TYPES OF DYEING METHODS Squirting Splashing Dipping  TYPES OF TYING MEHODS Twisting method Circle tying method Marbling method Knotting method Pleating method Stitching method Clumb tying method   EVALUATION Define tie-dye. List two dyeing methods and two tying methods respectively.   GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION State five functions of drama. Define tragedy and comedy respectively. What stage fright in drama? What is costume? Define playwright.   WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT Which of the following is a resist material in tie and dye? (a) Raffia (b) Wax(c) Fabric (d) Rubber gloves… Read More »TIE-DYE

CRK/CRE/CRS

AFRICAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

CLASSIFICATION OF AFRICAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS CHORDOPHONES: African stringed instruments include harp like the Hausaguluna, lutes likegoje,molo,garaya, kukuma,gurmiharp, raft zither of the Hausas called moloand banjo. MEMBRANOPHONES: African drums include Yoruba gangan ,iyailu,omele, dundun, atumpum of Akans, Yoruba gbedu, bata,IgboIgbaEze , IgbaEgwu , IgbaMmonwu, Hausa tombarikaage and kotsoko,NsingObong of Ibibios and Efiksetc. IDIOPHONES: African instruments classified as idiophone include shaken and struck instruments like metal gong with local names like Igbo ogene, Yoruba agogo, Hausa dawar, sekere ,rattle ,thumb piano , pot drum , medium slit drum etc. AEROPHONES: African instruments classified under aerophone include African flute, Hausa kaakaki ,oja etc.   EVALUATION State four categories of musical instruments. State one African musical instrument for each category of musical instrument.   TYPES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS WESTERN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS They are usually under three main headings such as plucked,bowed and hammered   instruments. (a)        STRING   INSTRUMENTS: The stringed instruments produce sound by the… Read More »AFRICAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

CRK/CRE/CRS

BEADWORKS

DEFINITION OF BEADWORK Beadwork is a craft which involves the use ofcolourful beads and other materials and tools in making various objects skillfully. Beadwork is a decorative work made of beads. Beadwork is the art or craft of attaching beads to one another by stringing them with a sewing needle or beading needle and thread or thin wire or sewing them to cloth.    MATERIALS AND TOOLS USED IN BEADWORK BEADING MATERIALS Fishing line Glue Thread Beads Hook Stopper   BEADING TOOLS Needle Nose pliers Scissors Micro- crimpers German box-joint pliers   EVALUATION Define beadwork. Mention two beading materials and tools.   GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION What is pre-historic art? Describe the art of the early men. Define these elements of drama. (i) Plot (ii) Characterization (iii) Diction (iv) Dramatis personae Mention the three principles of choreography. State five functions of make – up. Define rhythm and timbre in music respectively.… Read More »BEADWORKS

CRK/CRE/CRS

CONSEQUENCES OF USING FAKE AND ADULTERATED GOODS

CONTROL OF THE SALE OF ADULTERATED GOODS Patriotism Respect for constituted authority. Honesty Non-compromise of principles. Kind – heartedness Being conscious of one’s right as a consumer and willing to reject any form of cheating. Inspection of goods made at production companies by staff of governmental agencies that are saddled with the responsibility of regulating, testing and controlling the quality of goods made and distributed in Nigeria. This is necessary to ensure that goods meet acceptable standard before the goods get to the open market and the final consumers.   EVALUATION State two ways of controlling thedistribution and sale of fake and adulterated goods   AGENCIES THAT FIGHT AGAINST THE PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FAKE ANDADULTERATED GOODS They include: SON: This means Standards Organisation of Nigeria. It organizes test and certifies goods made in Nigeria. It ensures that goods meet acceptable standard. It takes inventory of products through proper documentation,… Read More »CONSEQUENCES OF USING FAKE AND ADULTERATED GOODS

CRK/CRE/CRS

ITEMS OF MAKE-UP

CONSEQUENCES OF USING FAKE AND ADULTERATED GOODS MEANING OF FAKE AND ADULTERATED GOODS Fake and adulterated goods are goods or products made with the intention to be sold as original and often mixed with materials of inferior and harmful quality.Due to adulteration, drink or food is not pure and not safe for human consumption.   FAKE AND ADULTERATED GOODS They include: Alcoholic drinks and non-alcoholic malt drinks Processed can foods like can milk Medicines CDS ,DVDS and audio tapes Perfumes and cosmetics Vehicle spare parts Computer software like games Designer labeled clothes Watches   REASONS WHY PEOPLE MAKE FAKE AND ADULTERATED GOODS Lack of patriotism Greed Lack of morals Lack of stiff penalties Disloyalty (Lack of integrity)   EVALUATION Define fake and adulterated goods. (i) Mention two goods that can be faked. State two reasons why people engage in the production of fake and adulterated goods.   GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION… Read More »ITEMS OF MAKE-UP

CRK/CRE/CRS

MAKE-UP IN DRAMA

MEANING OF MAKE-UP Make-up refers to cosmetics such as lipstick or powder applied to face which are used to enhance or alter the appearance. Make – up refers to the artificial substances like paint and powder applied on the face and body of the character to enhance or change his or her outward appearance. Make – up can either beautify or alter the player’s outward appearance to look like another person expected to be impersonated and imitated.   TYPES OF MAKE-UP There are two types of make – up namely; Straight or foundation make – up: This type of make – up reveals the normal facial appearance of the character through painting for distinctiveness and visibility.The make-up artist applies cosmetic materials like paint on the face of the character for beautification purpose. Character or stage make – up: This type of make – up changes the facial appearance of the… Read More »MAKE-UP IN DRAMA

CRK/CRE/CRS

INTRODUCTION TO CHOREOGRAPHY

MEANING OF CHOREOGRAPHY Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequences of movements of physical bodies in which motion, form or both are specified.Choreography is the art of composing ballets and other dances, planning and arranging the movements, steps, and patterns of dancers. Choreography is used in a variety of fields which include  musical theatre, cheerleading, cinematography ,gymnastics, fashion shows, ice skating ,marching band, show choir, theatre,synchronized swimming , artistry, video game  production and animated art.   PRINCIPLES OF CHOREOGRAPHY They include: Conception of the dance idea. Gathering of the movements. Creating the final structure and perfecting the performance.   MEANING OF CHOREOGRAPHER A choreographer is one who creates choreographies by practicing the art of choreography,a process known as choreographing. EVALUATION Define choreography. Mention the principles of choreography.   GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION Define collage. State the three collage requirements. What is mosaic? State the collage procedures. What are elements of… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO CHOREOGRAPHY

CRK/CRE/CRS

THEORIES OF MUSIC

Key signature refers to any of several combinations of sharps and flats after the clef at the beginning of each stave, indicating the key of a musical composition.   TIME SIGNATURE Timesignature is the amount and type of notes that each measure contains. The first measure is in 4/4 time and the second measure is in 3/4 time. The first measure (4/4) contains four quarter notes. The second measure(3/4) contains three quarter notes. 6/8 time contains six eight notes. 3/2 time contains three half notes.   TYPES OF TIME SIGNATURE There are two types of time signature namely; SIMPLE TIME SIGNATURE: Examples are as follows; Simple Duple Time: 2 2   2    2     2   2 2 4 8 16 32 64 Simple Triple Time: 3 3   3   3    3     3 2   4   8   16 32   64 Simple Quadruple Time: 4   4   4   4   4    4 2   4   8 16   32  64… Read More »THEORIES OF MUSIC

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