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catering craft practiceS

COOKING OF FOOD

Cooking can be defined as the application of heat on foods. It is the preparation of food in readiness for eating, using heat to render foods palatable, digestible, attractive and safe for consumption. Cooking food simply means transfer of energy from a heat source to food.

It can also be defined as the preparation of food to bring about a physical and chemical change.

 

PRINCIPLES OF COOKING – HEAT TRANSFER

Heat transfer is the movement of heat from the source to another place that is, from place to another. All cooking methods depend on one or more of these principles:

  1. CONDUCTION: This is movement of heat from one place to another through solid materials/objects. Metal objects such as copper, aluminium, iron, etc. transfer heat more quickly than non-metal such as wood, plastics, cork, etc. Good conductors are used wherever it is necessary to conduct heat quickly. Thus, cooking pots and pans are usually made of metals such as aluminium which is a good conductor.
  2. CONVECTION: This is the transfer of heat particles from one place to another through liquid or gas by the actual movement of the heated fluid from the hotter to the colder parts. The hotter particles become lighter and less dense; rising to the top while the colder particles take their place at the bottom thus causing convection current which distributes heat. Most methods of cooking that involve the use of liquid makes use of this principle.
  3. RADIATION: This is the process by which heat is transferred from a hotter to a cooler place without heating of the intervening medium. It refers to the movement of heat from the source to another place in direct rays falling on any object on its part. There is no object needed for the transfer of the heat.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is cooking?
  2. List and discuss the three principles of heat transfer.

REASONS FOR COOOKING FOOD

  1. To make the food soft.
  2. Cooking food makes it easier to digest.
  3. To make it more attractive.
  4. To develop new flavour.
  5. To stimulate appetite.
  6. To make it more palatable.
  7. The heat helps to destroy the germs present in food.
  8. Cooking also serves as a means of preserving foods. Some foods keep longer when cooked.

 

FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING COOKING METHOD

  1. The types of food and the desired product.
  2. The people who will eat the food.
  3. Cooking equipment and facilities.
  4. Skill of the cook.

 

EVALUATION

  1. State three points to consider when choosing cooking method.
  2. State two reasons for cooking food.

 

WHY PEOPLE EAT OUT

  1. For convenience- at work or near home.
  2. For variety- to make life more interesting.
  3. To avoid preparing food at home.
  4. Captive market- where there e.g. hospital patient, prisoners, school children, etc.
  5. Impulse- spur of the moment decision.

 

METHODS OF COOKING

Methods of cooking are classified under the following:

  1. Moist-heat method– cooking with liquid. Examples are:

–  Boiling

–  Poaching

–  Steaming

–  Stewing

–  Frying

  1. Dry-heat method– cooking with dry heat. Examplesare:

–  Baking

–  Roasting

–  Grilling

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. State three points to consider when choosing cooking method.
  2. Explain the meaning of cooking food.
  3. List the methods of cooking using moist heat.
  4. Mention the methods of cooking by dry heat.
  5. State five reasons why you cook food.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Cooking of foods:  Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages

Catering Craft Practice by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 117 and 118.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Transference of energy from a heat source to a food is called ____. A. fuel B. cook
  2. cooking D. change.
  3. One of the points to consider in choosing method is ____. A. area B.  electricity C.  skill of the cook D.  home
  4. One of the reasons for cooking food is____. A. to cook it B.  to grow C.  to store D.  to make it soft.
  5. Which of the following is an example of moist methods of cooking? A. Roasting B. Grilling C.  Toasting D.  Boiling
  6. Transfer of heat energy through a solid stationary material is called ____. A. radiation
  7. conduction C.  composition                       D.  convection

 

THEORY

  1. State three reasons for cooking food.
  2. State two reasons why people eat out.

 

See also

FLOUR COOKERY: Types of flour, Raising Agents & Flour mixtures

FOOD COMMODITIES: Cereal, Pulses, Herbs and Spices

FOOD COMMODITIES: Milk, Vegetables and Fruits

FOOD COMMODITIES : EGG, USES OF EGGS, METHOD OF COOKING EGGS & Fish,

FOOD COMMODITIES: MEAT, POULTRY, GAME, & TYPES OF MEAT

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