Computer Studies/ICT/IT (All Classes)



What is Microsoft Power Point?
Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program that is incorporated in Microsoft Office suite package. It offers word processing, outlining drawing, graphing and presentation management tools

Starting a presentation with Microsoft PowerPoint

There are two ways of starting Microsoft PowerPoint

Click on start button, choose All Programs and click PowerPoint
Double click on the icon of PowerPoint document and PowerPoint opens with the document already loaded.



E-mail is a method of sending digital messages from one computer to another. E-mail is short for Electronic Mail. E-mail is received instantly by the users email provider and mails stay in the mailbox until accessed by the users. Mail boxes have storage limit (limited amount of emails which they can hold and once full you cannot receive any more email until you delete older messages).

To use email, you must have an email address. Email address can be web based (like yahoo mail or Gmail or hosted internally like outlook express on the school computer).

Creating a yahoo mail account

Steps to yahoo account

Open the browser and go to or A page will show up with registration form at the center of the page.
Type your “first name” in the first field box
Type your ‘last name” in the second field box



File organisation refers to the way in which data is stored in a file and the methods by which it can be accessed. Database is stored as a collection of files. Each file is a sequence of records. A record is a sequence of fields. Data is usually stored in the form of records.

Records usually describe entities and their attributes e.g. an employee record represents an employee entity and each field value in the record specifies some attributes of that employee such as Name, Birth_date, salary etc. Organizing a file depends on what kind of file it happens to be.



Normalization of Database

Database Normalization is a technique of organizing the data in the database. Normalization is a systematic approach of decomposing tables to eliminate data redundancy and undesirable characteristics like insertion, updates and deletion Anomalies.

It is a multi-step process that puts data into tabular form by removing duplicated data from the relation tables.

Normalization is used for mainly two purposes.

Eliminating redundant (useless) data
Ensuring data dependencies make sense i.e. data is logically stored.



Data modeling is a process used to define and analyze data requirements needed to support the processes within the scope of corresponding information system in an organization.

Creating simple data mode

Microsoft Access offers one table, queries, forms, reports, macros and modules and these will be created before creating a data model.

Table: All data are stored in table i.e. MS. Access stores data in tables and can exist as a simple file that allows basic data as a single file that allows basic data storage and retrieval.
Query: This is used to add, change, delete or update data in database. It enables one to find or operate on the data in the tables.
Forms: These are screens used for displaying data. It is a screen that displays the output of data.
Reports: This is used for outputting of data. It is a screen that displays the output of data.
Pages: This is used to enter or display data online.



Data Model can be defined as abstract model whose purpose is to describe how data can be used and represented effectively. A data model is a picture or description which shows how data are to be arranged to serve a specific purpose it determines the structure of data and the information is to be contained, how the information will be used and how items in database will be related to each other.

Types of data model

Database model
Data structure diagram
Entity-relationship model
Geographic data model
Generic data model
Semantic data model
Database Model: A databa




To start Microsoft Access, follow the steps below:

Click start button, the program menu
Move to the MS Office menu
Click on MS Access

Once Access is running, an initial screen will be displayed. From the initial screen, you can either (i) create a new blank database (ii) open an existing database

Choose blank database and specify a new filename for the database.

Click on the OK button to create the new database. Creating a table using the design view tables is the foundation of every database.


Application Software:
These refer to the program used to solve a particular type of problem or variety of similar problems. Mostly, application programs are produced by an organisation for its specific tasks.
Types of application software
There are two major types of application software. These are:
(1)Users’ Application Program
(2)Application Package
Users’ Application Programs: These consist of programs written specifically for individual application. They are also called customized software



TRANSLATORS are programs used in converting programs written in other languages to machine language. They are also called language processors. The computer can only execute programs written in machine codes.
UTILITY PROGRAMS refer to programs designed to help analyse, configure, optimize and maintain the computer. They focus on low the computer resources operate. They reside in the memory until summoned by the user or the operating system.



Word processing software is used to manipulate a text document, such as a resume or a report. You typically enter text by typing, and the software provide tools for copying, deleting various type of formatting.

Word processor is an electronic device or computer software application, which performs the task of composing, editing, formatting and printing of documents. 

Some of the functions of word processing software include:

Creating, editing, saving and printing document
Copying, pasting, moving and deleting text with a document
Formatting text, such as font type, bolding, underlining or italicizing
Creating and editing table
Inserting elements from other software, such as illustrations or photographs.
Correcting spelling and grammar.



Operating System is a set of programs which takes over the operation of the computer to the point of being able to allow a number of programs to be run on the computer without intervention by an operator. It acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. It controls and allocates hardware resources on the computer. 
Examples are MS DOS, MS Window, Linux, Unix, Novell, Macintosh, PC DOS, Android, etc.


It serves as the communication link between user and the hardware.
It controls selection and operation of input and output devices.
It handles file operation
It gives a complete record of all that happens during processing.



Computer Software is refers to collection of programs (instructions) that cause the hardware to work. A program is a written instruction for a computer to perform a specific task.

These are thousands of programs that one can run on a computer. For instance, a graphic program can be used to design an album greeting cards, a word processor can be used to type a letter, memo or term papers.

Computer software is so important that without it, no computer system can work.




Information Transmission is the process of transferring information from one place to another. There are many ways by which information could by passed across to somebody or group of people.

The major methods are:

Ancient Method
Modern Method

Ancient Method: In the olden day information could be passed from one to another through different means such as:

Oral: This is face-to-face discussion. The person you were passing the information to would be there i.e. must be present before the information could be transmitted.
Town Crier: A town crier is a person employed to make public announcement in the street, market place of a town. The town crier shouts with loud voice so that people from distance can get the information.



Information processing can be defined as a series of actions or operations that convert data into useful information. It is the act of gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieval and classifying recorded information.

Art of information processing is the acquisition, recording, organisation, retrieval, display and dissemination of information. Data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative.




These are hardware components used to obtain results from computer after processing. They convert data from machine-readable format into human readable format. Examples of output devices are monitor, printer, speaker, projector, plotter, etc.


This is an output device that displays the result of processing on the screen. It resembles a T.V set and it’s also called a Visual Display Unit (VDU) or simple the screen. The output obtained from a monitor is called the softcopy since this output can only be seen.