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Climate is the average weather condition of the atmosphere over a long period of time usually about 30-35years.

 

FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT OR DETEMINE CLIMATE

  1. Latitude 6. Cloud cover
  2. Altitude 7. Vegetation
  3. Distance from the sea 8. Planetary wind
  4. Ocean currents

 

Elements of climate

  1. Temperature
  2. Rainfall
  3. Wind
  4. Relative humidity
  5. Pressure
  6. Cloud cover
  7. Sunshine

 

EVALUATION QUESTION

  1. What is climate?
  2. Differentiate between weather and climate.

 

TYPES OF CLIMATE

  1. HOT CLIMATE

(a)Equatorial Climate

Location: This is located within 5 North and South of the equator.

Areas: Amazon Basin of South America, Zaire Basin of Central Africa, The Coast of West Africa.

 

(b)Tropical Continental (Sudan) Climate

Location: It is located between 5-20 North and South of the equator

Areas: Central America, North Western part of South America, Interior upland of Brazil and Bolivia, West Africa, part of East Africa, parts of India and South East Asia, Northern Australia.

 

2.COLD CLIMATE

(a)Polar Climate

Location: It is found around 90 North and South of the Equator, especially around the poles.

Areas: Greenland, Iceland and Antarctica.

 

(b)Tundra Climate

Location: It is located around 60-900 North and South of the equator especially around the Arctic and Antarctic circles.

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Areas: Coastal strip of Greenland, Northern Canada and Alaska, parts of Eurasia and Antarctica.

 

3.DESERT CLIMATE

(a)Hot Desert Climate

Location: Within latitude 15 and 30North and South of the equator.

Areas: Sahara desert, Arabian desert, Iranian desert, Thar desert, Namib desert, Kalahari desert, Great Australian desert and Atacama desert.

 

(b)Cold Desert Climate

Location: Within 45-60 North and South of the equator.

Areas: Eurasia, North America and South America.

Other types of climate are:

 

WARM TEMPERATE CLIMATE WESTERN MARGIN (MEDITERRANEAN TYPE)

Location: 30-45 North and south of the equator.

Areas: North Africa, South West of South Africa, Central Chile, California, Southern Australia, France, Spain and Italy.

 

WARM TEMPERATE CLIMATE EASTERN MARGIN (CHINA TYPE)

Location: 20-40 North and south of the equator.

Areas: China, U.S.A, Mexico, Natal in South Africa and Australia.

 

COOL TEMPERATE CLIMATE WESTERN MARGIN (BRITISH TYPE)

Location: 45-60 North and south of the equator.

Areas: Britain, France, Belgium, Netherland, Denmark, Norway and British Columbia.

 

COOL TEMPERATE CLIMATE EASTERN MARGIN (LAURENTIAN TYPE)

Location: 400 and 50 North of the equator.

Areas: North Eastern part of North America, North East Canada and Northern Asia.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention any four elements of weather and climate.
  2. State any three importance of weather and climate to man.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is weather and climate?
  2. Explain the importance of weather and climate.
  3. Mention the instrument used for measuring rainfall.
  4. Explain equatorial climate.
  5. Mention the areas that experience Mediterranean climate.
See also  TOURISM

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The height of a place above the sea level is known as (a) Latitude (b) Altitude (c) Lapse rate (d) Spot height
  2. Which of these factors does not affect weather and climate (a) Cloud cover (b) Humidity (c) Latitude (d) Natural Vegetation
  3. The instrument used for measuring wind direction is (a) Wind vane (b) Thermometer

(c) Anemometer (d) Rain guage

  1. Wet and dry bulb thermometer could be used for measuring (a) Rainfall (b) Relative humidity (c) Temperature (d) Wind speed
  2. Which of the following weather elements is paired with the wrong instrument? (a) Wind direction and wind vane (b) Humidity and anemometer (c) Rainfall and rain guage (d) Atmospheric pressure and barometer

 

THEORY

  1. What is weather?
  2. Highlight five importance of weather and climate to man.

 

See also

ACTION OF WAVE

ACTION OF GLACIER

WIND IN THE DESERT

RUNNING WATER (RIVER)

WORLD TRADE

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