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Agricultural Science

A crop is a plant which is cultivated by man for some beneficial purposes. Crops can be classified based on (i) life cycle (ii)morphology  (iii) uses.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LIFE CYCLE

The life cycle of a crop is the period from planting of seed to maturity of the crop. Based on life cycle, crops can be grouped into three: –

  1. ANNUAL CROPS: – These are crops which grow and complete their life cycle within a year e. g. cotton, cowpea, yam, rice etc.
  2. BIENNIAL CROPS: – These are crops which grow and complete their life cycle within as year e. g. cassava, pepper, onions, carrot, ginger etc.
  3. PERENNIAL CROPS: – These are crops which grow and complete their life cycle in more than two years e. g. banana, orange, cocoa, coconut etc.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is a crop?
  2. Classify crops based on life cycle.

 

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MORPHOLOGY

On the basis of morphology i.e. structure (form and shape of a plant), crops are classified as:

  1. MONOCOTYLEDONOUS CROPS: These are crops which bear seeds that have only one seed leaf (cotyledon). Their leaves have parallel veins and they have fibrous root system. Examples include:maize, rice, millet, wheat,oil palm, grasses, etc.
  2. DICOTYLEDONOUS CROPS: These are crops which bear seeds that have two seed leaves or cotyledons. They possess leaves with net veins and tap root system. Example include: mango, orange, cowpea, groundnut, kola nut, pepper, etc.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. State five characteristics of monocot crops and three examples.
  2. State five characteristics of dicot crops and three examples.

 

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON USES

  1. CEREALS: – Crops grown for their grains or seeds which are rich in carbohydrates. They belong to the grass family e. g. maize, millet, rice, wheat, oat, barley, guinea corn etc.
  2. LEGUMES (PULSES): – These are crops grown for their seeds or grains which are rich in proteins e. g. cowpea, groundnut, soya beans, pigeon peas etc.
  3. ROOTS AND TUBERS: – These crops produce tubers under the ground that are rich in carbohydrates e. g. cassava, yam, potato, carrot, etc.
  4. VEGETABLES: These are crops grown for their leaves, fruits, or roots which are rich in vitamins and minerals e. g. tomato, lettuce, okro, amaranthus, cabbage etc.
  5. SPICES: – These crops are also rich in vitamins and minerals and are rich in food flavours e. g. pepper, ginger, garlic, onions, curry etc.
  6. BEVERAGE CROPS: – They are used in making food drinks e. g. cocoa, coffee, tea, kola nut etc.
  7. FRUIT CROPS: – These are plants which bears edible fruits that are rich in vitamins and minerals e. g. oranges, cashew, guava, water melon etc.
  8. OIL CROPS: – These are crops which produce edible oil when processed e. g. cotton seed, coconut, oil palm, groundnut, shear butter etc.
  9. LATEX CROPS: – They produce fluid called latex which when processed served as raw materials for making tyres, plastics, foam etc. Example is rubber tree.
  10. FIBRE CROPS: – They produce fibres used for making clothes, ropes, sacs etc. Examples include cotton, sisal, jute, hemp, kenaf etc.
  11. DRUG PLANTS: – Crops grown for medicinal purposes e. g. tobacco, neem, Indian hemp etc.
  12. FORAGE CROPS: – Crops grown to feed ruminant farm animals e. g. stylo, cowpea, guinea grass etc.
  13. ORNAMENTAL CROPS: – Crops grown to beautify our environment e. g. hibiscus, morning glory etc.

EVALUATION

  1. What are a) forage crops b) ornamental crops?
  2. Give three examples each of: a) fibre crops b) beverage crops c) drug plants

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

1.What are crops?

  1. Classify crops based on life cycle.
  2. Classify crops based on morphology.
  3. Classify crops based on uses.
  4. List out three examples of spice crops.
  5. State five biotic factors affecting agricultural production.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Cocoa and coffee are examples of …… crops. A. spice B. stimulant C. beverage  D. cereal
  2. All these are annual crops except A. cotton B.  cowpea  C.  yam  D. pepper
  3. Coconut is a/an… crop. A. annual B. biennial C. perennial  D.ephemeral
  4. Monocot crops have… A. two seed leaves B. three seed leaves C. tap root system
  5. fibrous root system
  6. Dicot crops have… … A. one seed leaves B. three seed leaves C. tap root system
  7. fibrous root system

THEORY

  1. (a) Classify crops based on life cycle. (b) Classify crops based on morphology.
  1. In a tabular form, state seven differences between monocot crops and dicot crops.

 

See also

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

AGRICULTURAL LAWS

LAND

AGRO-ALLIED IDUSTRIES

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

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