Skip to content
Civic Education


The civil service is a department in the executive arm of government which is responsible for the execution of policies and programmes of the government.  The civil service workers are known as Civil Servants.  Each ministry in the civil service is headed by Ministers or Commissioners.


Characteristics of Civil Service

  1. Neutrality: Civil service workers are not expected to participate in partisan politics unless they resign their appointment.
  2. Permanence: The civil service is a permanent government institution that does not change with the government.  The workers also enjoy security of job.
  3. Anonymity: A civil servant is not expected to reveal or speak to the press disclosing official secrets unless authorized by the minister.
  4. Impartiality: Civil servants are also expected to serve any government or political party in power without fear or favour.
  1. Merit: Employment into the civil service is based on merit and not to be based on favouritism.
  2. Expertise: Civil servants are expected to be experts in the functions they perform. This is because they put in long years of service.



  1. Formulation of policies.
  2. They ensure the implementation and execution of government policies.
  3. They give useful advice to the government through the ministers or commissioners.
  4. They act as intermediary between the government and the general public in dissemination of information.
  5. Through delegated legislation, the civil service performs legislative function by making bye-laws and such laws are obeyed.
  6. The civil servants provide information and help in the preparation and execution of annual budget and yearly statement of expected income and expenditure.
  1. The civil service provides social services to the people which help to improve lives.
  2. It also provides employment opportunities to members of the public.
  3. The civil service also keeps official documents of government.
  4. They also perform functions such as preparing bulletins, collection of taxes, representing ministries and government in certain public functions and meetings.



The civil service can be controlled through the following ways:

  1. Legislative Control: The legislature through the civil service appropriations can exercise control over civil servants and the ministers or commissioners can also be invited for questioning and to explain the activities of their ministries on the floor of the House.
  2. Public /Civil Service Commission Control: This commission is vested with the powers of appointing, promoting, transferring, discipline and dismissal of civil servants.
  3. Ministry of Finance Control: Ministries of finance and establishment exercise control over other ministries under the civil service. These two ministries deal with matters relating to other ministries annual expenditure, salaries and pensions.
  4. Hierarchical Control: The civil service is structured in a way that each higher hierarchy controls others below it.
  5. Judicial Control: The court can also control civil service through trying and punishing defaulters of criminal cases involving anybody including civil servants.
  6. Public Complaint commission (OMBUDSMAN). This is an independent body but have the power to listen to and investigate complains of citizens which may however relate to the civil service or a particular civil servant.
  7. Press Control: The press through their investigative journalism may criticize defaulters of public office holders and this serves as effective check on the civil service.


Problems that hinder the effective functioning of the civil service are

  1. Political instability
  2. Bribery and corruption
  3. Negative attitude towards work
  4. Low incentive
  5. Political interference
  6. Tribalism, nepotism and favouritism
  7. Bureaucracy i.e. too much emphasis is laid on protocol especially on issues that demand urgent attention.


See also



civic education past questions




We built School Portal NG to specially serve as an alternative means to provide free education for the less-privileged children or children born to low-income earners, adults who otherwise cannot afford to finance their way through school.

  Building & maintaining an elearning portal is very expensive, but this portal is free. Help to keep this learning portal free by donating or supporting us. We accept donations, grants, sponsorships & support to help reach out to more children. Thank you so much. Click here to donate

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

School Portal NG