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BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES

BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES

 

Comparison of Vertebrate Limbs

Limbs of various vertebrates are provided: e.g. fish- Tilapia, amphibian-frog reptiles, lizard; bird – domestic fowl (chicken), mammal- rabbit. Their anatomy can be studied.

The following can be noted:

  • That all limbs have five sets of bones;
  • A single upper bone- the femur in hind limb and the humerus in fore limb
  • Two lower limb bones -i.e. the tibia & fibula in the hind limb & ulna & radius in the forelimb.
  • Small bones – i.e. ankle (tarsals) and wrist bones (carpals)
  • The bones making the foot and hand are metatarsals and metacarpals respectively.
  • The bones of toes and of fingers i.e. phalanges
  • Observe the various modifications of these bones in the various animals.
  • Limbs of different mammals e.g. rabbit, cow, donkey reveal that the anatomy is adapted to mode or type of movement. e.g. the horse has a single digit.
  • An outdoor activity to observe various sty les of movement in different mammals can be studied.
  • It is noted that some move on tips of toes (donkey) others on the whole leg (rabbit).

 

Comparison of Wings of bird and insect

  • Wings of birds and insects (grasshopper, butterfly or moth) are obtained.
  • A hand lens or a dissecting microscope is used to observe the specimens.
  • The differences in their anatomy are noted.
  • Insect wings are membranous while those of birds are made up of feathers that interlock.

 

See also:

EVOLUTION

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES TO DEMONSTRATE CONTINUOUS VARIATIONS

GENETIC ENGINEERING

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF GENETICS

MUTATIONS

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