BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
To examine Bryophyta
A mature moss plant is obtained.
- The specimen is observed using a hand -lens.
- A labelled drawing showing structures is made: rhizoids, set a capsule, gametophyte, sporophyte.
To examine Pteridophyta
- A mature fern plant is obtained.
- It is observed using a hand lens.
- Sori can be seen on the lower side of fronds.
- A labelled drawing showing: frond, pinna, sorus, rhizome and adventitious roots.
To examine Spermatophyta
A mature twig of either cypress or pinus with cones is obtained.
- Observation of Male and female is made using a hand-lens.
- The naked seeds are noted.
- The leaves show xerophytic characteristics e.g. they are rolled, or needle-like.
A mature bean plant with pods is obtained,
- Observation of the leaves, stem and roots is made.
- Leaves are compound, broad arid have network of veins.
- The Ieaf-has a leaf stalk.
- They have a tap root system.
- Floral parts are in five e.g. 5 petals.
- A bean seed has two cotyledons.
A mature maize plant is obtained.
- Observation of the leaves, stems and roots is made.
- Leaves are simple, narrow and long with parallel veins.
- The petiole is modified to form a leaf sheath.
- They have a-fibrous root system.
- Floral parts are in threes.
- A maize gram has one cotyledon,
Examination of Arthropoda
- Specimens of crayfish, millipede, centipede grasshopper and spider are obtained.
- Where specimens are not available photographs are used.
- External features of the specimens are observed.
The differences in the following are noted:
- Body parts.
- Other appendages.
Examination of Chordata
The following specimens are obtained:
- Tilapia, frog, Lizard, bird and rabbit.
- Using observable features each specimen is placed into its class.
Features used include:
- Body covering.
- Type of teeth.
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