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Basic Science

Basic Science

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Reproduction is the ability of living organism to produce young ones of their kind. It is necessary for the continuity of life. TYPES OF REPRODUCTION There are two main types of reproduction Asexual reproduction Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction: This is the type of reproduction that involves only one parent.  Examples are vegetative reproduction, binary fission etc. Sexual Reproduction: This involves the female and male sexes. The female produces a sex cell or gamete called ovum or egg. The male produces the male gametes called sperms.  The nuclei of the gametes from both sexes fuse during fertilization. Fertilization is the fusion of the male and the female sex cell to form zygote. PARTS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ORGAN FUNCTION a. Testes Produces the male sex (sperm) b. Scrotal sac Houses the testes c. Penis Introduces sperm into the vagina of the female d. Vas deferens Transfer sperm… Read More »REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Basic Science

DRUG AND DRUG ABUSE

A drug is a chemical substance which affects the action of the body. IMPORTANCE OF DRUG It saves life It relieves pain It relieve suffering It helps to fight against diseases It promotes food health. DRUG ABUSE This is the act of using drugs without the doctor’s advice and prescription. DRUG MISUSE This refers to the use of drugs for purpose for which it was not intended or using a drug excessively DRUG ADDICTION It is a state in which a person physically or psychologically depends on a drug(s) for survival. Causes of Drug Abuse Curiosity Lack of Self-Confidence Peer Group Pressure Excitement Frustration and Stress Side Effects of Drug Abuse It leads to bad behavior such as crime, violence and murder It can change the working of some of the body’s organs permanently It can damage the sense of reasoning It gradually damages the liver and other delicate organs… Read More »DRUG AND DRUG ABUSE

Basic Science

NUTRITION

Nutrition is the process of taking in food to get energy and maintain life. It is also called feeding in living organisms. FOOD Food is any substance which when eaten is used to maintain life and growth. Importance of Food To give energy To maintain life It makes us grow To make one stay healthy It helps to build the body and repair worn-out tissues It enables the body to fight against diseases. FOOD ITEMS OR FOOD STUFFS These are items or things that we eat. Examples are rice, beans, yam, garri, fish, groundnut etc. Meal – This is a combination of two or more food items eaten together. Diet – This refers to the meals that we eat everyday SOURCES OF FOOD Food items can be classified into two sources Plants Animals Plant sources Rootsg. cassava, carrot, etc. Underground stems e.g. Irish potato, yam, onion etc. Fruitsg. palm oil,… Read More »NUTRITION

Basic Science

FAMILY HEALTH

SANITATION Sanitation is the process of keeping places free from dirt which causes infections, diseases and germs. This is done by removing waste products (both solid and liquid) away from the environment. It is also the process of maintaining cleanliness. PERSONAL CLEANLINESS This refers to the way of keeping germs from our bodies in order to maintain a healthy state.  Germs are organisms that are capable of causing diseases to our body. PERSONAL HYGIENE This is the practice of taking care of our body in order to lead a healthy life. The science and practice of maintaining good health through cleanliness is called hygiene. Ways of Keeping our Body Clean Clean your teeth at least twice daily. Always wash your body daily by bathing. Wash your hair always and comb it to make it look neat. Always wash and keep your clothes neat. Cut and keep your finger nails clean.… Read More »FAMILY HEALTH

Basic Science

PUBERTY

This is the period during which growing boys and girls reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction. Usually, puberty starts between ages 8 and 13 in girls and ages 9 and 15 in boys. Pubertal Changes in Boys Broadening of the chest and shoulders. Deepening of the voice. Growth of moustache and beard. Growth of hair in the armpit and chest. Growth of hair in the pubic region. Increase in the size of the genitals (i.e. penis and testicles). Rapid growth in height. Wet dream (i.e. an involuntary discharge of semen through the penis). Pubertal Changes in Girls Increase in breast size. Growth of hair in the armpit. Widening of hips. Rapid growth in height. Growth of hair in the pubic region. Menstruation begins. Menstruation This is the monthly flow of blood through vagina of a female child of child-bearing age. The first occurrence of menstruation is called menarche.… Read More »PUBERTY

Basic Science

CLASSIFICATION OF NON-LIVING THINGS INTO METALS AND NON-METALS METALS

Metals are elements that readily form positive ions and have metallic bonds.  Examples are copper, iron, copper, etc. Properties of Metals They are good conductors of heat and electricity They are lustrous i.e. shiny and can be polished. They are malleable, that is, they are capable of being beaten into thin sheets. They are ductile, that is, they can be drawn into thin wire. They are generally strong and hard with high tensile strength They are sonorous, that is, they produce sound when struck. They have high densities. They have high melting and boiling points NON-METALS These are elements that do not have the properties of metals. Examples are sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine. Etc.   Properties of Non-metals They are poor conductors of heat and electricity They are not lustrous They are not malleable They are not ductile They are not sonorous They have low melting and boiling point They… Read More »CLASSIFICATION OF NON-LIVING THINGS INTO METALS AND NON-METALS METALS

Basic Science

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS Plants exist in different forms. These are: Treesg. mango, orange, guava, pawpaw, etc. Flowers such as ice plant, hibiscus, yellow bush, pride of Barbados, etc. Herbs like crotalaria, carpet grass, Bahamas grass etc. Animals can be classified as: Vertebratesg. man, cat, goat, sheep, cow, chicken, rabbit etc. Invertebratesg. tse-tse fly, earthworm, cockroach etc. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS S/N CHARACTERISTICS PLANTS ANIMALS 1 Movement Passive movement Active movement 2 Reproduction Mostly asexual reproduction Mostly sexual reproduction 3 Nutrition Autotrophic Heterotrophic 4 Irritability Response to stimuli is slow Response to stimuli is quick 5 Excretion No developed excretory system Well-developed excretory system 6 Respiration Plants do not have complex organs for respiration Animals have complex organs for respiration 7 Food/feeding Plant produce their food Animals feed on already made food 8 Sense organs No sense organs Well-developed sense organs 9 Shape No definite shape because of… Read More »CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Basic Science

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS

Living things are things that have life in them.  Examples are man, insect, bird, fish, toad, lizard, yam, grass, etc. Living things are classified into two major group i.e. plants and animals. Non-living things are things that have no life in them.  Examples are stone, chair, table, water, shoe, bag, salt etc. The Characteristics of living things (Organisms) are the basic life processes that differentiate them from non-living (lifeless) things.  They can be represented by the acronym – “MR NIGER D” M _ Movement R _ Respiration N _ Nutrition I _ Irritability G _ Growth E _ Excretion R _ Reproduction D _ Death Movement: This is referred to as change of position or location. It is passive in plants but active in animals Respiration: This is the ability of living things to take in air. Nutrition: This is the process of feeding in living things. Plants can manufacture… Read More »CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS

Basic Science

MATTER

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.  Examples are a stone, sand, water, biro, air etc. All matter is made up of tiny particles called atom. PROPERTIES OF MATTER Matter occupy space Matter have mass Matter is made up of particles It exists in solids, liquids or gasses CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Matter can be classified into two major types Living Matter: This refers to things that have life in them e.g. goat, man, lion, plant etc. Non-Living Matter: This refers to things that have no life in them e.g. stone, water, chair, book, etc. STATES OF MATTER Matter exists in three main states. These are: Solid state Liquid state Gaseous state Solid State In the solid state the particles are held in fixed position.  They are arranged in a regular manner and hence have a fixed or definite shape. The particles are held together by strong force of… Read More »MATTER

Basic Science

BODY IMAGE

Meaning of Body Image Body image refers to the way a person feels about his or her physical appearance. People have differences in their physical appearances,some of these are in term of: 1.Height 2.Size or shape  of the body 3.Race or Ethnicity and 4.Colour of the skin,eye and hair.   PHYSICAL FEATURES Physical features or an individual’s appearance and attributes are inherited. From parentsorgrandparents,this is called HEREDITY. Examples of traits usually inherited from parents or grandparents are 1.Skin colour 2.Hair 3.Eye colour 4.Shape of the body. 5.Heighte.t.c.   Some of these differences may be valued while others may not.Forexample,a tall person may  feel  bad about  his  body,yet he cannot change his Height.I n some cultures,a person with lighter colour may be given more privileges than someone with darker skin.Someone with a darker skin may try to lighten his or her  skin in order to feel better.   EVALUATION 1.Body image… Read More »BODY IMAGE

Basic Science

HANDLING PUBERTAL CHANGES IN BOYS AND GIRLS

Pubertal changes could be physical ,emotional,social and internal.These changes must be well handled In Adolescents. Adolescents often enter puberty with a heightened sense of sexuality accompanied by a great  deal of confusion.At  this stage,they are faced with the challenges of forming an identity,false feelings of independence,uestions about conformity as  well as  confusion about values and views of life.   Hence,pubertal changes must be well handled by applying basic coping strategies or identity.Some strategies of handling pubertal changes are as follows: a.Personal hygiene and cleanliness b.Self acceptance. c.Emotional Development   d.Developing decision making skills which are 1 . Identifying and defining a problem 2.Gather information about the problem 3.Consider the advantages and the disadvantages 4.Consider  personal and family values in relation to the possible alternatives. Consider the impact of your decision on other people around you. 6.Choose one option thatwill have the best outcome. 7.Decide and act on the decision cautiously… Read More »HANDLING PUBERTAL CHANGES IN BOYS AND GIRLS

Basic Science

HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

PUBERTY               Puberty is the transitional biological stage between childhood and adulthood. It is the stage when the body matures.Puberty involves changes in primary seual characteristics. It starts when the pituitary gland at the base of the brain produces hormones.Hormones are chemical substances,which control the body’s development and growth.At pub.   Rty,these hormones are secreted to the reproductive organs,thatis,the testes and the ovariesin females and males respectively.The reproductive organs thereafter produce  sex hormones,which causes the changes in the adolescent’s body.   Adolescence begins  withpuberty.Most girls  reach puberty between the ages of 9-13 while boys reach puberty between the age of 12-14.However , children grow at different rates so some may mature laters than others.   DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES AT PUBERTY 1.Boys:there is a rapid increase in Height.Boys later caught up with Girlsin height and may overcome them. Girls:there is a rapid increase in Height.Girls tend to be taller thanboys… Read More »HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Basic Science

MAN AS AN INTELLIGENT ANIMAL

The human brain possesses qualities that have no parallel in the animal world. One consequence is man’s explicit mental capabilities. Man possesses the faculty of speech and his creative communication by means of his vocal system is completely different from those of animals   That’s the longest string of words that Nim Chimpsky, a chimpanzee who scientists raised as a human and taught sign language in the 1970s, ever signed. He was the subject of Project Nim, an experiment conducted by cognitive scientists at Columbia University to investigate whether chimps can learn language.   After years of exposing Nim to all things human, the researchers concluded that although he did learn to express demands — the desire for an orange, for instance — and knew 125 words, he couldn’t fully grasp language, at least as they defined it. Language requires not just vocabulary but also syntax, they argued. “Give orange… Read More »MAN AS AN INTELLIGENT ANIMAL

Basic Science

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LIVING THINGS IN THEIR HABITAT

An Ecological relationship is the relationship between organisms in an ecosystem. All organisms in an ecosystem are connected. Each interaction depends on the one before it. Each population interacts with one another in a complex web of relations. Ecological relationships help better describe how they are connected.   There are six ecological relationships in which two are oppositional and four are symbiotic. The oppositional relationships are predation and competition. The symbiotic relationships are mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, and parasitism.   The ecological relationship an organism has depends on the way the organism adapted to its environmental pressures on evolutionary bases. Oppositional relationships Predation This is where one organism hunts and eats the other organism. The organism hunting is called predator, while the organism being hunted is called prey. Energy received from the sun is transferred from animals when the prey is eaten by the predator. The predator now has its prey’s… Read More »RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LIVING THINGS IN THEIR HABITAT

Basic Science

Adaptations

Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat. The ability of living organisms to adjust themselves to the surroundings is called as adaptation. Adaptations are the changes in structure or behaviour of an organism that will allow the organism to survive in that habitat.   Plants and animals make some natural adjustments in some features to fit themselves into their environment. Different living organisms adapt themselves to their habitats in different ways. Adaptations can be brought about by changes in the body, changes in the behaviour and changes in location. Adaptation of animals in aquatic habitat Animals which live in aquatic habitat are adapted by structural modification of the structures of their body and also by developing the new structures. Aquatic animals are adapted by modifying the structures present in their bodies which are known as the adaptational structures or… Read More »Adaptations

PHE

HABITAT OF LIVING THINGS

HABITAT OF LIVING THINGS This coral reef in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area is a rich habitat for sea life. Few creatures make the ice shelves of Antarctica their habitat   What is an Habitat? A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by human, a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. A place where a living thing lives is its habitat. It is a place where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population.   Living place of plants and animals is called Habitat. Habitat can be big or small example forest or a leaf. Different animals and plants require different living conditions to survive examples. To survive, whales need sea water whereas to survive, goldfish need fresh water. Some animals… Read More »HABITAT OF LIVING THINGS

Basic Science

DEPLETION OT OZONE LAYER

Description-Atmosphere is the region of air above the earth surface. The principal layers of the atmosphere according to temperature of hotness are thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere. The ozone layer is located in the stratosphere of the atmosphere where it forms a protective layer shielding life on earth from the sun’s harmful ultra-violet radiation. The stratosphere is about 19km to 48km above the earth surface.   Causes of Reduction in Ozone Layer There are many gases in the atmosphere such as carbon(iv)oxide, water vapour, ozone and methane When these gases combine with chemical release from refrigerator compressor called  Chlorofluorocarbon(CFC) causes reduction in the ozone layer of the atmosphere. Importance of ozone layer -It brings about a cooling effect to the atmosphere and the earth surface -It absorbs high energy radiation from the sun such as ultra-violet radiation that cause sunburn to  the skin.. Effects of the Depletion of Ozone Layer… Read More »DEPLETION OT OZONE LAYER

Basic Science

DESERTIFICATION

Desertification is the process by which a previously biologically productive land becomes progressively dried till it eventually becomes a desert. Or Desertification is the extension or encroachment of desert into habitable land. The geographical zones near and around  the desert are highly prone to this environmental hazard.Man”s activities have contributed environmental degradation such as exposing the soil to intense ultraviolet radiation of the sun leading to excessive evaporation loosening of the soil texture which make the soil easily eroded by rain and winds. The regions of Nigeria that prone to desertification are those regions that closer to the hot desert of shara are the Sahel savannah located at the North-East covering Maiduguri, Yola and other towns. Sudan savannah is on the Northern part at the boarder of Nigeria covering areas such as Sokoto, Kano,Kastina and Zamfara. Causes of Desertification -Overgrazing -Deforestation -Bush burning -Climate change -Natural disaster -Urbanization -Climate change… Read More »DESERTIFICATION

Basic Science

DEFORESTATION

Deforestation is defined as the clearing of forest wood for farming or purposes without immediate replanting. This act of cutting down trees indiscriminately by the activities of man is encouraged by the following factors; -Bush burning -Building of schools, houses etc. -felling of trees for firewood -Construction of roads and bridges.   Reasons for Deforestation -Production of timbers for woodworks -Production of firewood and charcoal for domestic and industrial purposes. -Extension or urbanization of towns and cities. -Establishment of industries, markets, churches, houses, mosques etc. -Construction of roads and bridges. -Overgrazing of grasses and small trees by big animals   Effects of Deforestation on the Environment -Forests are wind-breaker, when they are destroyed it gives way for wind adverse effect. -It enhances soil erosion which destruction to farmland and buildings. -When forests are destroyed, it increases the concentration of carbon (iv) oxide in atmosphere which in turn depletes the ozone… Read More »DEFORESTATION

Basic Science

FLOODING

Flood is defined as an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry. Flooding occurs when a part of the soil or land is submerged under water. Some part of the land are prone to flooding, this is due to the soil structure Types of Flooding Flash floods- This occurs within a very short time and it usually as a result of heavy rain. Rapid On-set Floods-This type of takes longer time to accumulate and the flood can last for a day or two days. Slow On-set Floods –This is caused by water bodies overflowing their banks, it develops slowly and can last for days and weeks. Drainage Pattern-This is  a system of water course or drains for carrying off excess water. The drainage pattern in a city or town may be blocked by refuse when rain fall and water cannot flow freely in the blocked drainage. Types… Read More »FLOODING

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