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Basic Science (Primary Classes)

BST primary classes

LEVERS

A machine is a simple object which makes our work easier to do. Many objects in the school and at home such as a pair of scissors, bottle opener and cutlass, are examples of simple machines. In science, anything that makes us to use less energy to do much work or overcome a large force is called a machine. Examples of simplest machines are the levers and pulleys.   MEANING OF LEVER A lever is a simple machine that has the point of motion where effort can be made to carry a load.   EXAMPLES OF LEVER Seesaw Scissor Crowbar Hammer Nut cracker Pliers Hockey stick Wheel barrow Door handle Dolly Hole puncher   See also SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS Water and Chemical Pollution Air and Noise Pollution PARTS OF LEVER The three most important parts of a lever are: Load Effort Fulcrum or Pivot.     USES OF LEVER Seesaw… Read More »LEVERS

BST primary classes

SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS

MEANING OF SAFETY Safety means keeping yourself and others free from harm or danger. That’s being careful not to fall, bump or run into things. MEANING OF ACCIDENT Accidents are unplanned or unexpected events that happen to human beings. Accidents can happen everywhere, for example, in the schools, homes, roads and markets.   COMMON ACCIDENTS  Falling objects Bruises Cuts Burns Poisoning Drowning Choking Electric Shock   CAUSES OF ACCIDENT  At home  Running or playing football on a slippery floor. A leaking gas cylinder. Children playing with matches. Use of naked light near a petrol container. Careless use of boiling rings. Leaving water taps open when there is no water.   In the school  Slippery football field. Use of naked electric wire in laboratories and classrooms. Failure to keep the school premises clean and tidy.   See also Water and Chemical Pollution Air and Noise Pollution Environmental Health   OBJECTS THAT… Read More »SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS

Basic Science

Water and Chemical Pollution

WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is when waste, chemicals, or other particles cause a body of water (i.e. rivers, oceans, lakes) to become harmful to the fish and animals that need the water to survive. Water pollution can disrupt and negatively impact nature’s water cycle as well.   Causes of Water Pollution Water pollution has various causes; the major sources of water pollution are caused by humans. We pollute water bodies through various activities like agricultural activities, chemicals from industries, etc. This essay on water pollution will cover major causes that are as- Water pollution through industrial waste Water pollution through the disposal of waste Water pollution through Agricultural activities Water pollution through acid rain Water pollution through Oil spills   Ways of preventing water pollution Save water – Fresh and clean water is a precious resource. Don’t waste it! Take shorter showers, ask your parents not to water the lawn,… Read More »Water and Chemical Pollution

Basic Science

Air and Noise Pollution

AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is when unwanted chemicals, gasses, and particles enter the air and the atmosphere causing harm to animals and damaging the natural cycles of the Earth. Various Causes of Air pollution The burning of fossil fuels Sulfur dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and other factory combustibles are one the major cause of air pollution. Pollution emitting from vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes cause an immense amount of pollution. We rely on them to fulfill our daily basic needs of transportation. Agricultural activities Exhaust from factories and industries Mining operations Indoor air pollution   See also Environmental Health High and long jump Classes of food   Ways of preventing Air Pollution Use public mode of transportation Encourage people to use more and more public modes of transportation to reduce pollution. Also, try to make use of carpooling. If you and… Read More »Air and Noise Pollution

Basic Science

Environmental Health

Environmental Health is the branch of public health that focuses on the interrelationships between people and their environment, promotes human health and well-being, and fosters healthy and safe communities.   EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARD Tobacco smoke. Radon. Asbestos. Lead. Combustion gases. Tap water Household chemicals. Pesticides   See also High and long jump Classes of food NUTRITION Environmental Health problems Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming: Desertification: Deforestation: Loss of Biodiversity: Disposal of Wastes: Acid Rain. Overfishing. … Water Pollution. … Population Growth. … Waste Production. …   EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH They include: Exposure to hazardous substances in the air, water, soil, and food. Natural and technological disasters. Climate change. Occupational hazards. The built environment.   Strategies& Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic. Step3: Teacher explains the new topic. Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions. Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.… Read More »Environmental Health

agric primary classes

Classes of food

A carb is a macronutrient—a sugar, starch or fiber found in grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. They’re hard to avoid and they’re one of the most basic food groups humans need to stay alive.   Sources of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are found in a wide array of both healthy and unhealthy foods—bread, beans, milk, popcorn, potatoes, cookies, spaghetti, soft drinks, corn, and cherry pie. They also come in a variety of forms.   There are three main sources of carbohydrate which include (i) Starches: Starches are present in plenty of cereals, roots, tubes and also in plant stems. Cereals (wheat, rice) account for most of the dietary carbohydrate. (ii) Sugar: Sugar can be found in fruits, honey and things that produce sugar. Glucose is an essential element of sugar. This is very much needed for small children, especially during the period of teething and their growth stage. Lactose and jams,… Read More »Classes of food

Basic Science

NUTRITION

Nutrition is how food affects the health of the body. Food is essential—it provides vital nutrients for survival, and helps the body function and stay healthy. The process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repair.   CLASSES OF FOOD There are seven major classes of nutrients: Carbohydrates. Fats. Minerals. Proteins. Vitamins. Water.   USES OF FOOD Various uses of food: Food gives us energy and maintains the metabolism in our body. Our body requires metabolic activities to maintain the day to day work. It required amino acids for protein synthesis. These ‘amino acids’ are divided into essential and non-essential amino acids. The ‘essential amino acids’ are supplied by our food to the body. Food also contains vitamins and minerals that act as a co-factor for various enzymes of the body to maintain its activity.   Strategies & Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step… Read More »NUTRITION

Basic Science

Skeletal system

The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. It can also be seen as the bony frame work of the body which provides support, shape and protection to the soft tissues and delicate organs in animals   FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Skeletal system has several additional functions, including: Protecting internal organs from injury. For example, the skull protects the brain, while the thoracic cage protects the heart and lungs. Allowing for movement. Muscles attach to bones through tendons. This connection allows the body to move in many different ways. Producing blood cells. The soft bone marrow inside of many bones produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Storing minerals and nutrients. Bones can store and release minerals, including calcium and phosphorus, which are important for many bodily functions. Additionally, adipose (fat) tissue that can be used as energy can be found… Read More »Skeletal system

BST primary classes

Characteristics of living things

There are seven activities which make organisms different from non-living things. These are the seven characteristics of living organisms. 1. Nutrition Living things take in materials from their surroundings that they use for growth or to provide energy. Nutrition is the process by which organisms obtain energy and raw materials from nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats. 2. Respirations Respiration is the release of energy from food substances in all  living cells. Living things break down food within their cells to release energy for carrying out the following processes.     3. Movement All living things move. It is very obvious that a leopard moves but what about the thorn tree it sits in? Plants too move in various different ways. The movement may be so slow that it is very difficult to see. 4. Excretion All living things excrete. As a result of the many chemical reactions occurring… Read More »Characteristics of living things

BST primary classes

ANIMALS

Comparison of plant and animals as living things Animals are classified as wild and domestic animal. Domestic animals are animals that live with us at in our home, school compound and environment which we care for and they are not harmful to us. Domestic animals can also be called a friendly animal. While wield animals are animals that live in the bush. They are dangerous to human.   EXAMPLES OF DOMESTIC ANIMAL: Dog, goats, cow, cattle, rabbit etc. EXAMPLES OF WILD ANIMALS: Elephant, tigers, hyenas, lions ,snakes etc.   BASIC COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMALS AS LIVING THINGS   Plants are green in colour due to the presence of the chlorophyll and are able to prepare their own food with the help of sunlight, water and air. They are known for providing oxygen to the atmosphere.   Animals are the living organisms which feed on the organic material and are known… Read More »ANIMALS

BST primary classes

Soil

Soil is the top most layer of the earth where plant grow and animal walk Do you know that soil is very important to us? For example, we plant seeds in the soil in our farms and our school gardens. We also use soil for making bricks and pots.   There are three different types of soil, namely:- Loamy soil or loam Clayey soil or clay Sandy soil or sand Sandy soil or sand:- It has brown or black colour and it is Very smooth and sticky. Soil particles cannot be seen in it. It allows water to pass very quickly Loamy soil or loam:- It has brown colour and it is fairly smooth. Soil particles can be seen in it but not easily. It allows water to pass but not quickly Clayey soil or clay:- It has yellow colour and it is very smooth and sticky. Soil particles cannot… Read More »Soil

BST primary classes

The human body

Parts of the human body includes:- Head, eye, nose, mouth, arm, hand, knee, leg, foot, toes etc. Each part of the body is useful to us, part of the usefulness includes:- Part of the body Use Part of the body Use Eyes To see things Mouth To talk and to eat Nose To smell things Buttocks To sit Tongue To taste things Head To store information Hand To carry things Skin To feel things Leg To walk around Fingers To hold things   Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic “The human body” Step III: Teacher states the part of the human body and asks the pupils to touch it on their body. Step IV: Teacher explains the functions of some part of the human body Step V: Teacher writes on the board and the pupils copy the note   Evaluation: Name… Read More »The human body

BST primary classes

Where animals live and security

Animals live in different kinds of homes. Based on where animals live, they can be classified into two groups, these are:- Domestic animals: – These are animals that live with man at home; they are also known as harmless animals. Examples are cat, dog, hen, cow, goat, ram etc. Wild animals:- These are animals that live in the bush, they cannot live with man in the house. They are also known as dangerous animals. Examples of such animals include Lion, Tiger, Snake, and Cheetah etc. Below is a list animals and where they live A man lives in å house A bird lives in a nest A lion lives in a den A bee lives in a hive All aquatic animals’ e.g. fish, crocodile, crab live in water A rat lives in a hole.   Animal and security Some animals serve security purposes, they keep watch over man at home,… Read More »Where animals live and security

BST primary classes

Behavior and sounds of animals

Feeding All animals eat food. The food they eat may be different. Some animals feed on banana, some animals eat beans, some cassava, some eat chick, some eat grass, some feed on maize, some eat leaf, some eat rat while fishes eat worm. Movement All animals can move. A goat can walk and it can also run. A snail can crawl. A fish can swim. A bird can fly. A grasshopper can hop. A lion can walk and can also run and an insect can fly   Sounds of animals           Animals make different sound. The sound is a means of communication between them and it is referred to as animal language. Below is the list of some animals and the sounds they make:- A Bird sings A Lion roars A Snake hisses A Parrot talks A Cock crows A Goat bleats A Cat meows   Presentation Step I: Teacher… Read More »Behavior and sounds of animals

BST primary classes

Animal

Animals are living things which means they can perform the characteristics of living things which include reproduction, feeding, movement etc.  Animals cannot produce their own food themselves. They rely either directly or indirectly on the food produced by plant. Animals breathe in oxygen that is produced by plant. Examples of common animals:  butterfly, cat, cock, donkey, fish, goat, grasshopper, housefly, lizard, parrot, toad etc..   Features of common animals Size: Animals differ in their sizes. Some animals are big. Others are small. Body covering: The body of an animal has å type of covering. It could covered either with scales, feather, hair or shell Number of leg: Many common animals have legs. Some have two legs. Others have more than two legs.   Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic “Animals ” Step III: Teacher lists and explains the features of an… Read More »Animal

BST primary classes

Uses of Plant

Plants are very useful to us in many ways. We can make many things from plants for our use. As foods: A lot of the food that you eat comes from plants. For building, decoration, furniture, shade and as tools For making medicines: Plants are used for making various types of medicines. Only people who are properly trained can make safe medicines from plants. Do not try to make medicine in the classroom or at home. For making perfumes: Plants are also used to make perfumes. A perfume is å liquid (or vapour) which we use to make our body smell nicely. Perfumes are made from plants which have å good smell   Presentation Step I: Teacher revises the previous topic Step II: Teacher introduces the new topic ” Uses of a Plant ” Step III: Teacher lists and explains the uses of a plant Step IV: Teacher explains further… Read More »Uses of Plant

BST primary classes

Features of a Plant

Shape The shape of the leave of a plant can be described as follows: broad leaves, long leaves, narrow leaves, round leaves, divided leaves, thick leaves and thin leaves. Size Plants differ in their sizes. Some are big. Some have a medium size. Others are small. Example of a plant with a big size is mango tree while an example of a plant with a small size is a tomato plant. Colour Plants differ in the colours of their stems, fruits and flowers The colour of a stem could be green, ash, black, grey and brown. The colour of a fruit could be green, black, grey, brow, red and ash The colour of a flower could be green, brown, red, blue, purple and white Texture A plant could have a hard stem, soft stem, thin stem or thick stem. Height and branches Some plants are tall. Others are short. Some… Read More »Features of a Plant

BST primary classes

Plants

Plants are living things that can be found in our environment. Plants can manufacture their food by themselves making use of water and energy from sunlight through a process called photo they thesis. Plants take in carbon dioxide produced by animal and give off oxygen that is needed by man for survival   Parts of a plant The main parts of a plant include the following:- Leaves Stem Root and Flower   Functions of the main part of a plant Leaves: This is the part of the plant that traps energy from sunlight through which the plant produces its food. Stem: This is the part of the plant holds the branches, flowers, fruits and leaves in place Root: This is the underground part of a plant that holds the plant upright. The root draws nutrient and water from the soil to nourish the plant. Flowers: This is the part that… Read More »Plants

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