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Basic Science and Technology (Primary Classes)

BST primary classes

FRICTIONAL FORCES

Magnetism is a force that can attract (pull closer) or repel (push away) objects that have a magnetic material like iron inside them (magnetic objects). Magnets can be affected by electricity, which makes them very useful in machines and computers. Magnets are used to make a tight seal on the doors to refrigerators and freezers, etc. MEANING OF MAGNET A magnet is a substance which can attract iron or steel material to itself. Magnets are made of iron or steel.   TYPES OF MAGNETS There are two types of magnets: Permanent Magnets Permanent magnets remain magnetized even without the influence of external magnetic field, such as a horseshoe magnet.   Temporary Magnets Temporary magnets may lose their magnetism when removed from the external magnetic field, such as an iron pin.   See also FRICTIONAL FORCES FORCES   PROPERTIES OF MAGNETS Magnets attract ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt.… Read More »FRICTIONAL FORCES

BST primary classes

FRICTIONAL FORCES

To stop a moving object, a force must act in the opposite direction to the direction of motion. For instance, if you push your book across your desk, the book will move. The force of the push moves the book. As the book slides across the desk, it slows down and stops moving. The force that opposes the motion of an object is called friction.   MEANING OF FRICTION Friction is the force that opposes the motion of an object. Friction can slow down or stops any moving objects.   See also FORCES INCLINED PLANE PULLEYS EFFECTS OF FRICTION What effect does friction force have on motion? It opposes the motion of all objects. It slows down any moving objects. It counteracts the acceleration of an object. It prevents surfaces from sliding against each other. It causes objects to accelerate.   ADVANTAGES OF FRICTION Friction plays a vital role in… Read More »FRICTIONAL FORCES

BST primary classes

FORCES

In the school and at home, we see many moving things. We move about on our legs, vehicles move on roads, trains on the rails, aeroplanes fly in the sky and ships sail on the seas. Movement occurs when a force is applied on a thing or object. That is, force causes things to move. It can also prevent things from moving. MEANING OF FORCE A force is a pull or push on a object. That’s, force opposed movement or causes objects to movement. For example, car’s accelerator and break or to change direction (steering).   TYPES/EXAMPLES/ EVIDENCE OF FORCE There are many types of forces, but only five are discussed below: Muscular Force Gravitational Force Magnetic Force Electrical Force Frictional Force   See also INCLINED PLANE PULLEYS LEVERS   DEMONSTRATING DIFFERENT TYPES OF FORCE EFFECTS OF FORCE A force acting on an object may cause the object: To change… Read More »FORCES

BST primary classes

SIMPLE MACHINES – INCLINED PLANE

An inclined plane is a simple machine. It allows one to use less force to move an object. Examples of inclined planes are ramps, sloping roads and hills, plows, chisels, hatchets, carpenter’s planes, and wedges. MEANING INCLINED PLANE An inclined plane is a simple machine used to raise a load to places higher than the floor level.   See also PULLEYS LEVERS SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS   EXAMPLES OF INCLINED PLANE An axe Wedge Automatic screwdriver Screw jack Office chair Sliding board on children playground Staircase Ladder   ADVANTAGES OF INCLINED PLANE An axe is used to slide wood. Wedge is used to cut wood. Automatic screwdriver is used to screw a nut. Screw jack is used to lift up a car. Office chair is used for balance and position. Sliding board is used by children on playground. Staircase is used to one floor to another. Ladder is used to access… Read More »SIMPLE MACHINES – INCLINED PLANE

BST primary classes

PULLEYS

A pulley is a wheel that has a smooth groove in its rim, with a rope passing through the groove. At times, there are loads that are too heavy to lift. MEANING OF PULLEY  A pulley is a simple machine that is used to lift heavy objects. A simple machine for overcoming this difficulty is the pulley.   EXAMPLES OF PULLEY MACHINES Flag pole A sewing machine Photocopy machine Spring balance A grinder machine A modern elevator A crane   TYPES OF PULLEYS Basically, there are two (2) types of pulleys:   Single Fixed Pulley A fixed pulley’s wheel and axle stay in one place. A good example of a fixed pulley is a flag pole: When you pull down on the rope, the direction of force is redirected by the pulley, and you raise the flag pole.   See also LEVERS SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS Muscular system   Movable machine A… Read More »PULLEYS

BST primary classes

LEVERS

A machine is a simple object which makes our work easier to do. Many objects in the school and at home such as a pair of scissors, bottle opener and cutlass, are examples of simple machines. In science, anything that makes us to use less energy to do much work or overcome a large force is called a machine. Examples of simplest machines are the levers and pulleys.   MEANING OF LEVER A lever is a simple machine that has the point of motion where effort can be made to carry a load.   EXAMPLES OF LEVER Seesaw Scissor Crowbar Hammer Nut cracker Pliers Hockey stick Wheel barrow Door handle Dolly Hole puncher   See also SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS Water and Chemical Pollution Air and Noise Pollution PARTS OF LEVER The three most important parts of a lever are: Load Effort Fulcrum or Pivot.     USES OF LEVER Seesaw… Read More »LEVERS

BST primary classes

SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS

MEANING OF SAFETY Safety means keeping yourself and others free from harm or danger. That’s being careful not to fall, bump or run into things. MEANING OF ACCIDENT Accidents are unplanned or unexpected events that happen to human beings. Accidents can happen everywhere, for example, in the schools, homes, roads and markets.   COMMON ACCIDENTS  Falling objects Bruises Cuts Burns Poisoning Drowning Choking Electric Shock   CAUSES OF ACCIDENT  At home  Running or playing football on a slippery floor. A leaking gas cylinder. Children playing with matches. Use of naked light near a petrol container. Careless use of boiling rings. Leaving water taps open when there is no water.   In the school  Slippery football field. Use of naked electric wire in laboratories and classrooms. Failure to keep the school premises clean and tidy.   See also Water and Chemical Pollution Air and Noise Pollution Environmental Health   OBJECTS THAT… Read More »SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS

BST primary classes

Muscular system

The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the body. Some muscles—like the ones in your arms and legs—are voluntary, meaning that you decide when to move them. Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines and other organs, are involuntary.   Functions of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle has four major functions, these are: Mobility Posture Stability Respiration Circulation Digestion Urination Vision Child birth Organ protection Temperature regulator     Strategies & Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic. Step3: Teacher explains the new topic. Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions. Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.   Assessment & Evaluation: Say the meaning of muscular system List the parts of the muscular system Draw and label the muscular system Explains the functions of the muscular system   Assignment: Define muscular system List… Read More »Muscular system

BST primary classes

Digestive system

The human digestive system is a series of organs that converts food into essential nutrients that are absorbed into the body. The digestive organs also move waste material out of the body. The enzymes in saliva help break down foods, and the lubrication function of saliva makes it easier for food to be swallowed.   PARTS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Stomach Small intestine Pancreas Liver Gallbladder Colon (large intestine) Rectum Anus   FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The function of the digestive system is to break down the foods you eat, release their nutrients, and absorb those nutrients into the body Diagram of the digestive system   Strategies & Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic. Step3: Teacher explains the new topic. Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions. Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.   Assessment & Evaluation: .1. Say the meaning of digestive system… Read More »Digestive system

BST primary classes

System of the body and its functions

System of the body and its functions Body systems are groups of organs and tissues that work together to perform important jobs for the body. Some organs may be part of more than one body system if they serve more than one function. Other organs and tissues serve a purpose in only one body system.   Respiratory System Allows gas exchange between cells and the environment. Includes trachea and lungs. The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, trachea, and lungs. When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth and goes down a long tube called the trachea. The trachea branches into two bronchial tubes, or primary bronchi, which go to the lungs Digestive System/Excretory System Ingests food and breaks it down into usable nutrients. Excretes solid waste products. Includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines Cardiovascular/Circulatory System Moves materials… Read More »System of the body and its functions

BST primary classes

BASIC ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a form of energy that can give things the ability to move and work. Electricity makes the following to do work or move: bulbs, toys, machines, cars, television etc.   CONDUCTOR AND NON CONDUCTOR CONDUCTOR Conductors are materials that allow energy to flow through them. For example, wire, iron, pin, spoon, etc. They are called electric conductors   NON CONDUCTOR Non conductors are materials that do not allow energy to flow through them. For example, paper, broom, thread cloth etc.   MEANING AND COMPONENTS OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Electric circuit contains three (3) components:   Source-batteries   2, Electric conductor-wire   Resistor-the switch (on/off)   USES OF ELECTRICITY Heating and cooling water Water heater Washer and dryer Lights Refrigerator Electric oven Dishwasher Decoration-Christmas light Cooking Operating all our home appliances-television, computer, radio, fan, pressing iron. Operating machinery and public transportation systems.   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The Teacher revises the… Read More »BASIC ELECTRICITY

BST primary classes

BASIC ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a form of energy that can give things the ability to move and work. Electricity makes the following to do work or move: bulbs, toys, machines, cars, television etc.   PUPILS ACTIVITIES Materials required A plastic comb (or a glass rod or a plastic rod), pupils with dry hair, a piece of dry fur or silk, a desk, light paper, e.g. high-quality toilet paper or filter paper, your science notebook, biro.   Procedure Tear the toilet paper (or filter paper) into many small pieces and spread them on a desk. Use the plastic comb to comb your dry hair a few times and quickly place it above the pieces of paper on the desk.   Write your observations in your science notebook. Did you see the small pieces of paper jumping up to hang onto the comb? This may surprise you. But the Greeks also performed this type… Read More »BASIC ELECTRICITY

BST primary classes

MEANING OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

HEAT Heat is a form of energy that increases the level of hotness of the body.   TEMPERATURE Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of the body –water, iron, food etc. Heat and temperature are often used as if they are used as the same thing.. When substance is hot, the temperature is high and when substance is less hot, the temperature is lower. Temperature can be measured with thermometer.   THERMOMETER Thermometer is a device used for measuring the temperature of the body.   UNITA AND SYMBOLS OF TEMPERATURE SCALE DEGREE CELSIUS (0C) Hint- 0c to 0f, divide by 5, then multiply by 9, then add 32 Example1: convert 100 Celsius to Fahrenheit First, 100/5=2 Then, 2×9 = 18 Then, 18 ± 32 = 50·F Example 2: convert 350 Celsius to Fahrenheit First, 350/5 = 7 Then, 7×9 = 63 Then, 63 ± 32 = 95·F Pupil’s… Read More »MEANING OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

BST primary classes

MEANING OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

HEAT Heat is a form of energy that increases the level of hotness of the body.   TEMPERATURE Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of the body –water, iron, food etc. Heat and temperature are often used as if they are used as the same thing. When substance is hot, the temperature is high and when substance is less hot, the temperature is lower. Temperature can be measured with thermometer.   THERMOMETER Thermometer is a device used for measuring the temperature of the body.   TYPES OF THERMOMETER Clinical or medical thermometer: it is used to measure body temperature Laboratory thermometer: it is used to measure the temperature of an experiment. Infrared ear thermometer: it is used to measure the temperature in the ear. Infrared thermometer: it is used to measure the temperature of a surface. For example, forehead. Mercury thermometer Digital or analogue thermometer: thermometer is either… Read More »MEANING OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

BST primary classes

MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONVERSION

Energy is the ability to be active or to do work MEANING OF ENERGY CONVERSION Energy conversion is also known as energy transformation. It is the process of changing energy from one type of energy to another.   FORMS OF ENERGY CONVERSION Mechanical energy can be transformed to heat energy. Electrical energy can be transformed to mechanical energy. For example, blender, electric cooker etc. Electrical energy can be transformed to heat energy. For example, pressing iron, electric stove etc Mechanical energy can be transformed to electrical energy. Chemical energy can be transformed to heat energy. For example, kerosene stove. Solar energy can be transformed to heat energy, chemical energy and electrical energy. Light energy can be transformed to heat energy.   IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONVERSION  It saves money It reduces pollution It saves energy It generates energy It replaces nonrenewable energy.   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The Teacher revises the previous… Read More »MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONVERSION

BST primary classes

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium. Instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, various kinds  paints, inked brushes, colored pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels, various kinds  erasers, markers, styluses, and various metals (such as silverpoint).   Digital drawing is the act of using a computer to draw. A drawing instrument releases a small amount of material onto a surface, leaving a visible mark. The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials, such as cardboard, wood, plastic, leather, canvas, and board, may be used.   Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard or indeed almost anything. Drawing is a way of making marks to represent an object. Common drawing instruments are Set Square, French curve, divider, compass, drawing board, ruler, pencil, pen and ink, sharpener, and eraser etc.   USES OF DRAWING INSTRUMENTS COMPASS A compass is a drawing tool that can be used to draw circles or arcs, parts of a circle. Compasses are usually made… Read More »DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

BST primary classes

MEANING AND USES OF MAINTENANCE MATERIALS

The purpose of maintenance is to ensure that our equipment is in good working conditions. A breakdown in plants and machines clouds is as a result of inadequate maintenance.   MEANING OF MAINTENANCE Maintenance is an activity that should be carried out on regular basis in order to keep equipment in good working conditions.   IMPORTANCE OF MAINTENANCE It makes our equipment last long It prevents us from danger. It saves us from embarrassment It prevents our equipment and materials from rustling It beautifies our home and environment It saves money   WAYS OF MAINTENANCE AND MATERIALS NEEDED FOR MAINTENANCE Dusting the tables, refrigerator, fan etc. Sweeping the floor Mopping the floor Polishing or cleaning the furniture Replacing faculty electrical parts Polishing or cleaning shoes   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. The Teacher introduces the new topic. The Teacher explains the note in details. The… Read More »MEANING AND USES OF MAINTENANCE MATERIALS

BST primary classes

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF ACCIDENT

MEANING OF SAFETY Safety is the state of being safe, the condition of being protected from harm and other non-desirable outcomes. Safety means keeping yourself and other from harm and danger.   MEANING OF ACCIDENT An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has inconvenient or undesirable consequences. An accident is something harmful and takes pl ace suddenly and unexpectedly. IT may result in simple injuries to the body like bruise and cuts. But may also result in major complication like broken bones with heavy bleeding, failure to breathe, unconsciousness or even death.   ACCIDENT AT HOME AND SCHOOL Falling into fire (fireplace or stove) will cause burns Spilling hot liquids and food (saucepan being pulled over)cause scalds Touching electric wires causes shock, breathing stops, heart stops.-death Sharp instruments cause cuts Swallowing poison drugs, kerosene, rat poison etc can cause death. Falling from trees can cause broken bones and cuts.… Read More »CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF ACCIDENT

BST primary classes

MEANING, TYPES AND IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS

MEANING OF MATERIALS A material is a substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an object. Materials can be pure or impure, living or non-living matter. Materials can be classified based on their physical and chemical properties, or on their geographical origin or biological function. Materials are resources used in making products of technology.   TYPES OF MATERIALS Wood materials Plastic materials Metal materials   EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM WOOD MATERIALS Products made from wood materials are bow and arrow, shelter, furniture, doors and windows bridges, electric poles etc.   EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM PLASTIC MATERIALS Products made from plastic materials include the following: rulers, toothbrushes, electronics, shirts and blouses buttons, plastic pipes, buckets etc   EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM METAL MATERIALS Products made from metal materials are pipes, roofing sheets, cylinder, pots, spoons, containers, bolts and nuts etc   USES OF WOOD MATERIALS Wood materials are… Read More »MEANING, TYPES AND IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS

BST primary classes

Forms of Force

Force is a push or pulls acting upon an object as a result of its interaction with another object. There are a variety of types of forces. Previously in this lesson, a variety of force types were placed into two broad category headings on the basis of whether the force resulted from the contact or non-contact of the two interacting objects.   TYPES OF FORCE Contact Forces Action-at-a-Distance Forces Frictional Force Gravitational Force Tensional Force Electrical Force Normal Force Magnetic Force Air Resistance Force Applied Force Spring Force   EFFECT OF FORCE Force has the following effects on objects Force can make a stationary object move or make a moving object move faster. Force can change the direction of a moving object. Force can change the shape or size of an object.   Strategies & Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic. Step3:… Read More »Forms of Force

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