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Mrs Okolie

PHE

RECREATION, LEISURE AND DANCE ACTIVITIES

Definition of Recreation Recreation can be defined as participation in sporting activities during our leisure time. It is a voluntary participation in which no monetary gain is expected. It is done after one’s daily job, usually for fun, enjoyment, social and physical benefits.   Definition of Leisure and Rest Leisure is one’s free time and this embraces what one does to gainfully occupy his free time. Rest is a state of being free from activity and disturbance. It helps to prevent tension. The best state of rest is sleep.   Definition of Dance Dance is expressive movement of turning twisting and rolling of the body (parts) to conform with the rhythm of a sound, beat or music. It is a way of expressing our inner feelings of joy and happiness.   Components of Recreation Recreation covers a wide range of activities which can be grouped into: (i) Indoor recreational activities.… Read More »RECREATION, LEISURE AND DANCE ACTIVITIES

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PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PROGRAMME

Exercises to Develop Strength, Endurance and Flexibility The following exercises are designed to develop strength, endurance and flexibility: Strength development: Pull up, press up, knee bend, sit up, weight training. Endurance development: Circuit training (running on the spot— squat thrust—- press up—Harvard step up—-tread mill—-windmill—-squat jump—-sit up) Flexibility development: Windmill, duck walk, hurdle stretch, bending from the trunk, bending the neck sideways, bending forward and backward, trunk flexion standing, trunk extension.   Safety Precautions While Performing Exercises The following safety precautions should be observed while performing exercises: (i) You must know your limitation. (ii) The person must not force himself to perform activity he cannot perform. (iii) There must be general warm up before performing activities. (iv) Students should be allowed to practice for some time before testing. (v) Target should be set on each activity. (vi) Activity must be appropriate to the age and weight of the student. (vii)… Read More »PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PROGRAMME

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PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING

Meaning of Physical Fitness Physical fitness is the ability of an individual to perform his daily work well without feeling too tired and still have reserve energy in case of emergency.   Components of Physical Fitness The components of physical fitness are: (a) Health related components (b) Skills or performance related components   (a) The health related components are: (i) Muscular power (ii) Muscular strength (iii) Muscular endurance (iv) Cardio vascular respiratory endurance (v) Flexibility (vi) Resistance to diseases     (b) The performance related components include (i) Coordination (ii) Muscular power (iii) Speed (iv) Agility (v) Accuracy (vi) Balance (vii) Body composition Flexibility and power are essential for health and very important for skills performance.   Characteristics of a Physically Fit Person The characteristics of a physically fit person are as follows: (i) Physical characteristics: He has organic vigour, organic base, is active, is skilled in some physical activities… Read More »PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING

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INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

Definition of Physical Education Physical education can be defined as the education that deals with the all round development of an individual through carefully selected physical activities. It can also be described as an integral part of the total process of education that makes use of selected and properly conducted physical activities in the development of the whole individual.   Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of physical education include the following: (i) Physical development (ii) Mental development (iii) Social development (iv) Emotional development (v) Skills development   Components of Physical and Health Education Physical and health education is made up of two broad subjects, namely; (i) Physical education (ii) Health education   Scope/Branches of Physical Education The scope/branches of physical education are as follows: (i) Sports and games (ii) Aquatic sports (iii) Gymnastics (iv) Athletics (v) Martial arts (vi) Safety education (vii) Recreation (viii) Rhythm and dance Definition of… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

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WATER SUPPLY

What is Water? Chemically a molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom held together by covalent bonds. Water is precious to man’s existence as it is needed in agriculture, sports, industry, and domestic affairs. Water may be hard or soft. Hard water is not good economically as more soap is needed to form lather. When water is free from mineral salts, such water is called soft water as it dissolves soap quickly. Sources of Water Supply The two major sources of water supply to man are: Surface Water Ground Water   Surface Water Supplies Surface water supply are abundant and easily accessible. They are however prone to pollution from human transport, industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes. Sources of surface water supply include the following: Rain water River water Lakes, ponds and streams   Ground Water Supplies Ground water supply are lodged in the earth.… Read More »WATER SUPPLY

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SEWAGE AND REFUSAL DISPOSAL

Meaning of Sewage and Refuse Refuse refers to all solid wastes such as pieces of paper leaves, garbage, ashes and dead animals while sewage refers to liquid wastes such as urine, kitchen wastes or water from laundry. Types of Sewage There are basically three types of sewage, namely: Domestic Sewage Industrial Sewage Storm Sewage Methods of Sewage Disposal Open dump Water system VIP latrine – Ventilated Improved Pit latrine Bucket latrine Pit-hole latrine Methods of Refuse Disposal Open dump Advantage: It is cheap to water system Composting Advantage: Decomposed materials (without toxic materials) may serve as fertilizers Disadvantage: Turning may be laborious and odour offensive Incineration There are modern and local ones and are of different types. Advantage: Local technology can be used Disadvantages: If not properly managed surrounding air may be polluted Sanitary land fills: An excavated or land depression area is needed wherein refuse gabage are thrown and… Read More »SEWAGE AND REFUSAL DISPOSAL

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PERSONAL, SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY HEALTH

Definition of Health Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being of an individual and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmities. Health may be regarded as a balance of physical, mental and social aspect of life in a human being. Aspects of Health Health is generally classified under two aspects, namely, physical health and mental health. (i) Physical health: This simply means a condition of overall well-being, that is, when the body is functioning as it was designed to function. Physical health is the freedom from diseases or abnormality and soundness of the body. (ii) Mental Health: Mental health is a state of emotional and behavioural well being. It is all about how the individual thinks, feels and behaves. Having good mental health helps on lead a happy and healthy life. Determinants of Health There are four general determinants of health, namely: Heredity Environment Life… Read More »PERSONAL, SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY HEALTH

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CONTACT AND NON-CONTACT SPORTS

SAFETY MEASURES IN CONTACT AND NON-CONTACT SPORTS Safety Measures in Contact Sports The playground must be kept clean; that is, remove all dangerous materials on the field e.g. stones, broken bottles, pegs, etc. Do not perform or play on a slippery ground. Warm-up properly before performing any exercise. Apparatus must be arranged and inspected before use. Avoid wearing high heel shoes or too heavy boots. Participants’ dresses/sport wears should be smart and loose enough to allow free movement of the body. Safety Measures in Non-contact Sports The following are safety measures in non-contact sports: Safety Measures in Gymnastics Accident often occurs during gymnastics. To reduce accident therefore, certain  safety precaution must be taken. Have a proper warm up before activities Start from simple to complex Apparatus must suit the activity. Enough landing foam to prevent jars and injuries during vaulting Never carry out any activity without instruction Check the activity… Read More »CONTACT AND NON-CONTACT SPORTS

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NON-CONTACT SPORTS

Definition of Non-contact Sports Non-contact sports are those sports where participants should have no possible means of impact, such as sprinting, swimming, darts, snookers where players use separate lanes or take turns of play. Examples of Non-contact Sports The following are examples of non-contact sports: Darts Snooker Chess Swimming Gymnastics Tennis Table tennis Badminton Benefits of Non-contact Sports The benefits of non-contact sports include the following: It brings about critical and constructive thinking It relaxes the muscles of the body There is greater control over injuries risk Help in the development of speed and free movement of the body. Participating in non-contact sports, could wipe stress and live a healthy life. It exercises all parts of the body It is for fun and entertainment Basic Skills and Techniques in Non-contact Sports The basic skills in non contact sports include the following: Swimming Skills Performance (Styles) The following skills are used… Read More »NON-CONTACT SPORTS

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CONTACT SPORTS

Definition of Contact Sports Contact sports are sports that emphasize or require physical contact between players. Some sports such as martial arts are scored based on impacting an opponent, while others include rugby and football which require tackling of players. Examples of Contact Sports The following are examples of contact sports: Wrestling Judo Karate Boxing Football Rugby Benefits of Contact Sports The benefits of contact sports include the following: It enhances and promotes stamina It is for fun and enjoyment It promotes inter-personal-relationship among athletes It is used as an entertainment It serves as means of livelihood for participants It improves speed and promotes physical fitness and flexibility Basic Skills and Techniques in Contact Sports Basic Skills in Wrestling The following are skills in wrestling: Hold or grips Throws Stance. Attacks. Offensives and defensives. Escapes Basic Skills in Judo The following are skills in judo: Stance Gripping Movement Falling Techniques… Read More »CONTACT SPORTS

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BALL GAMES – SOCCER

History and Development of Soccer The true origin of soccer is difficult to determine but soccer otherwise known as football could be linked to the Greeks and Romans. The game was later brought to England by the Romans Soldiers. In 1863, the London Football Association established the first set of rules of the game. The English called it “Association Football”, while the Americans called it “soccer”.   The Nigeria Football Association (N.F.A) was established in 1945. The body responsible for the rules of the game, is F.I.F.A, that is, the Federation of International football Association. It was founded in 1904 in Zurich, Switzerland.   Soccer is an international game played by 2 teams of 11 players aside. Substitutes of 7-11 players are allowed depending on the governing body but in an international competition or championship maximum of three players are allowed as substitutes. A player can play the ball with… Read More »BALL GAMES – SOCCER

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VOLLEYBALL

Volley ball was invented by William Morgan in America in the year 1895. The International Volleyball Association was formed in 1947. Volleyball became an Olympic game in 1964 and was first played at the Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan. The Nigeria Volleyball Federation was formed in 1970 with Dr. J.C. Omoruwa as its first chairman. It is a game played between two teams of 6 players each. It can be played by both sexes.   Basic Skills and Techniques in Volleyball The following are basic skills and techniques in volley ball: The service (under Arm, Tennis, overhead and windmill service). The volleying Digging Spiking Blocking Set-up Dink shot. Rules and Regulations of Volleyball The rules and regulations of volley ball include the following: All matches consists of 3 out of 5 games The choice of court or service is decided by a toss of a coin. Teams change courts after… Read More »VOLLEYBALL

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FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF FOOD

Food Classification, Sources and Functions CLASS SOURCES FUNCTIONS Carbohydrates Cassava, yam, maize, sugar-cane, honey, potatoes, rice, millet etc. Provide energy needed for the body. Proteins Fish, meat, milk, beans Body building, repair and replace worn-out tissues. Fats and Oil Animal oil, palm oil, butter, groundnut oil, cheese, fish oil, cod liver oil, coconut oil Regulate body temperature, secondary source of energy. Mineral Salts Milk, meat, liver, cheese, vegetables, sea foods Proper functioning of the body. Vitamins Liver, eggs, milk, fish oil, citrus, tomatoes, fruits. Protection against diseases. Water Rain, Springs, brooks, vegetables, fruits, Beverages tea etc. For easy digestion and maintenance of body fluid. CARBOHYDRATES Glucose is the end product of the digestion of glucose. Excess glucose is converted as glycogen and stored in the muscles and liver. Carbohydrates are initially used as the major energy source. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. FATS AND OIL Fats… Read More »FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF FOOD

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FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

FOOD, CLASSES AND IMPORTANCE Food can be defined as any substance that can be metabolized by any organism to give and build tissues. It is a substance which when taken into the body, yields materials which can produce energy, yield substances for growth and repair of our body tissues. Good food is one of the basis for good health.   CLASSES OF FOOD Carbohydrates Fats and oil Protein Mineral salts Vitamins   DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOOD CARBOHYDRATES—  cassava,   yam,    maize,    potatoes,   rice,  millete.t.c. FATS AND OIL—palm oil, butter, groundnut oil, animal oil  e.t.c. PROTEIN—fish, meat, egg, milk, beans e.t.c. MINERAL SALT—sea foods, vegetables, liver, milk e.t.c. VITAMINS—liver, egg, milk, tomatoes, fruits e.t.c. WATER—rain, spring, brooks/small river, tap e.t.c.   FUNCTIONS OF FOOD Food satisfies hunger. Food keeps the body warm. Food makes us look good and healthy. Food builds the body. Food protects the body from diseases and infections. Food… Read More »FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

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Pathogens, Diseases and their Prevention

Diseases Caused by Pathogens Pathogens are organisms that cause diseases. Majority of those organisms are micro – organisms which can only be seen by the microscopes.   Diseases Disease means illness or disorder of the body or mind. In other words, disease is a condition of abnormal function involving any structure, part or system of an organism.   Pathogens or Disease Causative agents Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Worms Vector e.g. insects   Types of disease Communication diseases Non – Communication diseases   Communicable Diseases These are diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another.   Pathogens enter into the body Through the mouth or nose Through the intestine Through the skin Through the anus   Types of Communicable Disease Airborne disease Waterborne disease Contaminated foods disease Contagious/skin contact disease Animal/Insect bites disease Examples of Communicable Disease Measles Malaria Mumps Pneumonia Cholera Ring worm Syphilis Small pox Tuberculosis Whooping… Read More »Pathogens, Diseases and their Prevention

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Contact and Non – Contact Sports

Skills and Safety Measures in Contact and Non – Contact Sports Skills used in Wrestling The open stance The neck and forearm hold The under – arm sweep The hand pin The buttock fling The arm drag The leg hook Diving to grasp the thigh Diving to grasp the right and left leg.   Skills used in Judo Stance Gripping Foot walk / movement Falling Throws Choking Arm locking Breaking the balance   Skills used in Gymnastics Gymnastics are grouped into three areas namely— the STUNTS, TUMBLING and APPARATUS WORK. The stunts and tumbling activities are grouped as floor exercises or ground work. Apparatus activities are the gymnastic activities done with equipment. Jump support (side horse), dips (parallel bar) pull-up (horizontal bars), and skin the cat (horizontal bars). A SPOTTER is an individual that assist another in performing physical activities.   Skills used in Swimming Front crawl Breast stroke Back… Read More »Contact and Non – Contact Sports

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Benefits of Contact and Non – Contact Sports

Benefits of Contact Sports Contact Sports help to develop the spirit of sportsmanship. They help to inculcate in individual importance of cooperation. They encourage team spirit. They help an individual to execute skills learnt. They help to develop physical fitness. They increase strength and endurance. They improve self – image. They decrease the risk of obesity. They help in cardiovascular conditioning. They help players improve their performance and skills through practice and hard work.   Benefits of Non – Contact Non – Contact Sports serve as means of livelihood. They help to develop skills. They develop personality and social traits. They are for recreation and relaxation. They improve body posture. They develop courage.   EVALUATION QUESTION State the benefits of contact and non – contact sports. Mention the components of physical fitness that are beneficial to the body.   WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT Exercise helps to keep the body ______ A. fit… Read More »Benefits of Contact and Non – Contact Sports

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Examples of Non – Contact Sports

Gymnastics and Swimming History of Gymnastics Gymnastics means naked art and it originated in ancient Greece. It is believed that the Chinese were the first people to develop activities that resembled gymnastics. The people that perform it are called ‘The Gymnasts’ and the place where the activities are carried out is known as ‘the gymnasium’. It is an exercise intended to develop strength, power, flexibility and agility. It became an Olympic sport in 1896; the controlling body is Federation Internationale De Gymnastique (F.I.G) with its headquarters in Switzerland Gymnastics Federation of Nigeria (G.F.N) was established in 1975.   John Basedow( 1723 – 1790 )  was  the first European to teach organized gymnastics. Johann Guts Muth published the first book on gymnastics titled Gymnastics for youths. He is referred to as great – grand father of gymnastics. Fredrick Ludwig John established the first gymnastics club called ‘Turnverein’ and invented the parallelbars,… Read More »Examples of Non – Contact Sports

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Contact and Non – Contact Sports

Definition of Contact and Non – Contact Sports Contact Sports are sports that allows for partial or full body close interaction between two or more opponents without contradicting the context of fair play. The sports / games allow the opposing players / teams to operate within the same court, field or arena. Examples are football, basketball, handball, boxing, judo, wrestling etc. Non – contact sports are sports that do not allow partial or full body close interaction between two or more opponents. This is made possible because each player / team operates in their own restricted area, lanes or court.  Examples are table tennis, tennis, badminton, volleyball, swimming, athletics and gymnastics.   WRESTLING AFRICAN WRESTLING No one knows when and where African wrestling started. This is because wrestling has been part of African culture from time immemorial. Various communities or tribes have used wrestling as part of their festivals, moon… Read More »Contact and Non – Contact Sports

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Sources of Water Supply

Water Supply Water is one of the most abundant natural resources that covers about 80% of the Earth’s surface. It is very important because it is needed by every creature. The body system contains approximately 75% of water. Most of the food we take comprises water. It helps the flow of blood, prevents dehydration, regulates body temperature and helps in eliminating body waste. It is needed in agriculture, sports, industry, domestic affairs, recreation, transportation, researches and many other aspects of life. The formula for water is H2O i.e two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.   The two major sources of water Surface water supplies Ground water supplies   Surface Water Supplies: are abundant, easily accessible – they includes: Rain water River water Lakes, ponds and streams Ground Water Supplies: Include the following Well: – there are two types of well Shallow Deep   Qualities of Good Water… Read More »Sources of Water Supply

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