Safety is from the French word “sauf”.Safety is a situation which prevents any form of injury while performing some activities. It is a situation where an individual or group of individual can carry out or perform activities without any injury. According to the dictionary, it means the state of being safe, freedom from the occurrence of risk of injury, danger or loss. Reasons for Safety/ Needs for Safety To prevent damage of properties: Road and fire accidents can bring great damage to many properties.Through safety measures, both public and private properties can be maintained and have longer usage. To prevent loss of life:Safety measures should be put in place to prevent death of individuals while carrying out a task. To prevent avoidable accidents: When necessary safety measures are put in place, some accidents will be avoided. For instance, if necessary gadgets and personnel are available at a swimming pool,… Read More »Our Roles in Promoting Safety in Our Community
Mr. Oyedepo D.O
National unity and integration: Nigeria is made up of many ethnic groups who rule themselves through various means based on kinship. The Hausa/Fulanis had Emirs and Sarkis as their kings, the Yorubas/Edos have Obas while the Igbos were ruled by elders and village assembly. National unity has now brought us together as brothers and sisters, most ethnic groups in Nigeria inter-marry, this brings about unity despite our differences. Integration: this is the process of bringing together people of different ideas and cultural backgrounds to have common interests and pursue common goals. Nigeria is made up of over 300 ethnic groups therefore there is need for integration in order to promote peace, understanding and progress in the society. Cultural integration can take the following forms Religious tolerance Inter-ethnic trade Inter-ethnic marriage Education Patriotism NYSC Scheme – All these are the institutions that the Nigerian government have put in… Read More »NATIONAL UNITY AND INTEGRATION
Honesty is defined as the quality of being truthful or the act of being straight forward. Attributes/Qualities of honesty Truth: an honest person does not lie, he is never biased in his discussions. Respect: an honest person respects the opinion of other people. Reliability: an honest person is dependable Obedience: an obedient person is faithful and cannot deviate from the truth. Most obedient people are honest. Hard work: honest people are hard working. They do not believe in malpractices, cheating, bribery and corruption Friendship: honest people have many friends and well-wishers. Benefits of honesty Favour: honest people easily get favour and assistance from other people than dishonest people. Responsibility: an honest person can and would be given a position of responsibility than a dishonest person. Defence: an honest person can be defended when attacked by people of eicked intentions. Patronage: an honest person in business can easily be patronized… Read More »HONESTY
Citizenship means membership of a country, nation or state. A citizen is a legal member of wherever he comes from and has some rights, duties and obligations. Types of citizenship By Birth: A person becomes a citizen of the country where he is born. By Marriage and Registration: A foreigner can becomes a citizen if he/she marries a Nigerian and registers the marriage. By Descent: Many Nigerians who live in other countries and have children in those countries automatically have their children as Nigerians based on descent. By Naturalization: This is having citizenship of another country having fulfill certain conditions e.g. A foreigner that have lived up to 15 years in Nigeria can apply for citizenship if he/she fulfill certain conditions. Honorary citizenship: A country can confer citizenship in a distinguished personality who have done something significant in the country. Dual citizenship: A person can be a citizen of two… Read More »CITIZENSHIP
Socialization is the process by which a child learns how to do things like other human beings in the society. A child is helpless and dependent on other people around him for everything therefore, as he grows, through daily contact and interactions with other human beings he learns how to do things like others in the society. Socialization is the training of the child in the culture or ways of life of his people or society. Socialization is the process by which an individual acquires new behaviour through interactions and direct learning from other human beings. It is a process by which a new member goes, through understanding the needs and practices of his community and adapts to them. Socialization is a life-long process which begins from birth until death. The primary socialization begins at home where we learn the do’s and don’ts and culture of our society. … Read More »SOCIALIZATION
Values is the actual worth of a thing in monetary terms. Values can be seen as the importance that we attach to a thing. Society values refers to the norms, standards and principles which the society expects from people living in it. Forms of values Moral values: This has to do with conduct and disciplined behaviour. Economic value: This is the effort of an individual to earn a living through economic activities Social value: This is our pattern of behaviours Political value: This involves leadership and good governance Individual virtue: This is the belief and faith to survive and succeed in life. Importance of values Values directs our behaviour and our relationship with others. Values increases good behaviour and feeling Values brings happiness and satisfaction when we live by it. Values enhances self-esteem Value gives a sense of fulfilment and contentment. Community and societal values Patriotism (good citizenship) Justice… Read More »VALUES
Culture is the total way of life of people of a society. It includes the people’s beliefs, language, religion, artwork, dressing, dancing, greetings, technology, etc.
Culture differs and varies from place to place and a society is known by its culture. Culture grows and changes with time. The result of assimilating other people’s belief, customs and traditions through continuous contact is known as “ACCULTURATION”
A settlement is a place with buildings where people live. Our physical environment determines the type of settlement we have in a particular area. A settlement could be a town or village or an area with many houses built by people or government.
There are two types of settlements.
Environment is the totality of our surroundings. Both man and the resources he depends on are all found in the environment. Our environment is made up of both physical and social surroundings. Types of environment Physical environment Social environment The physical environment refers to the things that surrounds us, it is made up of both natural and man-made objects around us that we can see, feel and touch. The Natural Environment: These are things provided by nature e.g. mountains, hills, rivers, lakes, island, temperature, wind, cloud, valleys, etc. Man Made Things: There are things that are made by man e.g. houses, motor cars, bridges, road, furniture, electricity etc. Features of the physical and social environment Weather: This is the atmospheric condition of a place at a particular time which changes daily. Highland and lowland: Highlands are parts of the earth’s surface which is high above the ground level. Lowlands… Read More »PEOPLE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
NATURE OF SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies is an integrated subject because it draws its ingredients from other social science subjects like geography, economics, political science, sociology, psychology, history, etc. It helps us to understand differences in our culture and how conflict can be settled through dialogue. It helps us to understand the world, the position of our country and how to communicate with one another. Social studies studies how man lives and inter relates in his society. Objectives of Social Studies Social studies teaches us the world around us and how to tolerate and respect the culture of other people other than our own. It helps us to appreciate the importance of cooperation among our relatives, peers group and people in authority. It impacts knowledge and skills necessary for tackling the problem of man in the society. It helps us to understand the needs of our nation and how… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL STUDIES
Global international cooperation is the coming together of different nations or countries of the world to pursue a common goal for the benefit of all. It is the collaboration of nations in politics, economic and social issues for the common good of all nations. STRATEGIES OF GLOBAL INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION International Conferences: This is hen issues of international concern are discussed at international meetings, summits, conferences, etc. International Trade: This is the type of trade that exists between two or more countries of the world. It is a means of bringing nations together for the exchange of goods and services. International Organization: These are associations of nations that help to facilitate cooperation among nations of the world. United Nations Organization, Economic Community of West Africa State (ECOWAS), Organization of Africa Unity (OAU), etc are examples of international organizations. Bilateral/Multilateral Agreement: This is the agreement reached between two or more nations… Read More »GLOBAL INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
The Nigerian economy, over the years, has depended on oil for survival. The public organizations have not been able to live up to expectation. Government spends heavily yearly to ensure these government organizations such as NEPA, NITEL, NRC, etc are productive but they remain inefficient. Because of this persistent poor performance, the government decided to embark on a national economic reform programme called National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS). At the state level it is called State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (SEEDS) while at the local government level it is known as Local Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (LEEDS). The key policies of the reform were privatization, deregulation and commercialization. PRIVATIZATION Privatization is the process of taking over government business by private sector, businessmen or individuals. The implication is that government ceases to own and control the business instead the private sector or individuals take over the management and… Read More »ECONOMIC REFORM MEASURES IN NIGERIA
Population is the total number of people living in a particular geographical location within a given period of time. Nigeria is believed to be the most populous country in Africa with a population of about 140 million people as at 2006. China has about 1.3 billion, the highest in the world. Most countries of the world are either over-populated, under-populated or having optimum population Over-Population: This is a situation whereby the number of people living in a country is far more than the available resources of the country. Under-Population: This is a type of population in which the number of people living in a country is far below the available resources of that country. Optimum Population: This is a situation whereby the number of people living in a country is neither too small nor too great compared to the available resources of that country. REASONS FOR RAPID POPULATION GROWTH… Read More »POPULATION
Family life education is the kind of education that provides instruction and information that helps to reduce social problems in order to enhance family social wellbeing. It is the education that helps members of the family to understand their roles, work together as a team for the progress and peaceful coexistence of the family. Family life education provides the information for the physical, mental, emotional, psychological and economic development of the family. It creates cultural foundation for the children on interpersonal relationships, adulthood including sexuality and reproduction. The major core messages in family life education are societal values, customs and beliefs, gender issues, family size, family welfare and parenting. IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION It prepares the family to deal with challenges that may arise in the home. It helps children to develop into responsible adults. It enhances interpersonal relationships in the society. It helps to promote peace… Read More »FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION
Deregulation is the removal of government strict regulations that constrains market forces in order to allow many people to participate in public business activities. It is the reduction of government control on how businesses are done so that more people can participate. The main reason for deregulation is to allow for competition, economic growth and create a free market. ADVANTAGES It leads to healthy competition and efficiency. It leads to creation of employment opportunities. It helps to reduce monopoly. It allows people to make choices. It brings about low prices for goods and services. It discourages red-tapism or bureaucracy DISADVANTAGES It can promote class system. It can lead to increase in prices particularly at the early stage. It does not favour the poor in the beginning. It makes the few rich richer. It makes government redundant. See also national unity and integration honesty citizenship socialization values
Drugs are substances or mixtures that are consumed for the prevention or cure of ailments. Trafficking is the movement of human or objects from one place to another. Drug trafficking is the illegal transportation of drugs from one place to another for economic gains. People who transport drugs from one place to another are called drug traffickers. REASONS FOR DRUG TRAFFICKING Many people are engage in drug trafficking for the following reasons: Poverty: people get into drug trafficking business because they are poor and they want to get rich. It is an alternative measure against poverty. Greed: Many people have discovered that this illegal business is lucrative and they want to continue in it. They are not satisfied with what they have. They keep piling up wealth because they are greedy. Unemployment: The high rate of joblessness has compelled people to go into drug trafficking as a means of… Read More »DRUG TRAFFICKING
National security is the ability of a nation to create and maintain a peaceful environment that is free from internal and external disturbances. No nation can experience true development without a relative level of national security politically and economically. Nations of the world have their national security agencies. These agencies are responsible for ensuring peace and order in the society. Some of these agencies are: the military (Army, Navy and Air force), the Police Force, paramilitary organizations (Custom, Immigration, National Civil Defence Corps, etc), the State Security Service (SSS), National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). CRIMES THAT AFFECT NATIONAL SECURITY Pipeline Vandalism: This is the internal destruction of petroleum pipes in order to steal petroleum products. Drug Trafficking: This is the illegal transportation of hard drugs from one place to another for economic gain. Illegal Bunkering: This is the unlawful transportation of petroleum products to other parts of… Read More »NATIONAL SECURITY
Self-esteem refers to the perception, view or judgment a person makes about him or herself that affects his/her relationship with other people. It is the recognition of one’s qualities and it includes values, goals, talents, worth, physical make up and purpose in life. TYPES OF SELF-ESTEEM There are basically two types of self-esteem: High self-esteem and low-self esteem. High self-esteem: This is a situation where a person attaches high sense of worth and value to him or herself. An individual with high self-esteem recognizes his or her own strength and skill and can accept and acknowledge successes and achievement. Such a person responds confidently to challenges and problem and practices positive thinking. Low self-esteem: This is when a person experiences feeling of worthlessness, inadequacy, helplessness, inferiority, and a sense of being unable to improve his/her situation. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SELF-ESTEEM The family as a primary agent of socialization… Read More »SELF ESTEEM
Cultism is the ritual practices of a group of people whose negative activities, membership, policies, meetings and operations are kept secret from other members of the society. Cultists have signs and symbols that can only be interpreted by their members. Cultism in Nigerian institutions is traceable to the formation of Pirate Confraternity by Professor Wole Soyinka in 1952 at University College, Ibadan now University of Ibadan. Today, there are many cult groups within and outside the school system such as Black Eye, Buccaneers, Black Axe, Daughters of Jezebel, Vikings, Red Devils, Mafia, Trojan Horse, Amazon, Temple of Eden, etc. CAUSES OF CULTISM Many reasons have been advanced for the formation of cultism in Nigeria. For example, the Ogboni confraternity was a sacred cult among the Yoruba people in the pre-colonial Nigeria. Their duties were both political and religious. However, today different reasons are responsible for cult membership. Family… Read More »CULTISM IN OUR SOCIETY
Conflict resolution is the various process involved in the settlement of dispute, disagreement or conflict between people, groups or nations. Disagreement is part of human interaction. The challenge however is when such disagreement arises, how can it be managed or resolved. NONVIOLENT METHODS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION Dialogue: This has to do with discussions between the various parties involved in the conflict. It is expected that at the end of the discussion the parties involved will come together and allow for peace. Recently, the federal government entered into dialogue with Boko Haram in the North East and Niger Delta Avengers in the South-South in order to restore peace in the regions. Mediation: This is the process whereby a neutral third-party facilitates reconciliation and agreement between people or groups who are aggrieved. The third-party must be unbiased in the process of settlement to ensure a lasting peace between the parties involved.… Read More »MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION OF CONFLICTS