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Mrs. Favour

English Language

PUNCTUATION

PUNCTUATION.

Punctuation is the system of symbols that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear.

Each symbol is called a punctuation mark.

For example (., ! – : etc) 

English Language

Capitalization

Capitalization.

Capitalization is the writing of a word with its first letter as an upper case and the remaining letters in lower case.

The following are the cases when capitalization is used: 

(A) Abbreviations

Abbreviations begin with a capital letter.

(i) Titles of persons

English Language

INDIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH.

Indirect speech is used to refer to a person’s words without quoting him or her exactly.

It is also referred to as indirect quotation or reported speech.

The original spoken words are not repeated.

The exact meaning is given without repeating the speaker’s words.

English Language

DIRECT SPEECH

DIRECT SPEECH.

Direct speech is used to give a speaker’s exact words.

It is also referred to as direct quotation.

Direct speech is always enclosed within quotation marks.

Examples: Hemedi announced, “My aunt works in a biscuit factory ”  “Creating jobs will be my first priority” the governor said.

A comma always separates the quoted words from the speaker’s name, whether the name comes before or after the quotation

English Language

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES.

An adjectival clause acts as an adjective in a sentence, that is, it modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Examples:

The bushman, who knew the forest well, told us about the hidden cave. (Who knew the forest well is an adjectival clause that modifies the noun bushman).

The bushman told us a legend that involved the cave. (That involved the cave is an adjectival clause that modifies the noun legend).

English Language

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.

An adverbial clause is a subordinate clause which takes the place of an adverb in a sentence.

Just like adverbs and adverbial phrases, adverbial clauses answer the questions where, when, how, to what extent, with what goal/result and under what conditions.

In addition, an adverbial clause may tell why.

Note how an adverb clause can replace an adverb and an adverbial phrase in the following Example:

Adverb: The Prime Minister gave a speech here.

English Language

COMPLEMENTS

COMPLEMENTS.

Some sentences do not take objects or adverbs (or adverbial phrases) after the verbs.

Instead, they take complements.

A complement is the part of the sentence that gives more information about the subject (subject complement) or about the object (object complement) of the sentence.

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