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Mrs Ngozi Nnanna

catering craft practiceS

EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS

ENERGY Energy is defined as the ability to do work. It exists in different forms like: heat, light, sound, electrical, potentials (stored), kinetic etc. LAWS OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy can be changed from one form to another. The total amount of energy before and after the change remains the same. This observation is stated in the law of conservation of energy which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another. There are types of energy such as chemical energy, heat energy, and light energy. HEAT CONTENT (ENTHALPY) OF A SUBSTANCE Heat content or Enthalpy of a substance is the characteristic internal energy possess by the substance, which is due to the structure and physical state of a substance. The potential energy is due to the structure while the kinetic energy is due to the physical state. Enthalpy of one… Read More »EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS

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COFFEE MAKING SERVICE

Coffee is produced from the roasted beans of the coffee tree, and is grown and exported from regions such as South America, India, the Middle East, the West Indies named Sumatra. Brazil is the world largest grower of coffee, Columbia is second, the Ivory Coast is third and Indonesia fourth. THE RULES TO BE OBSERVED WHEN MAKING COFFEE IN BULK ARE AS FOLLOWS: Use freshly roasted and ground coffee. Buy the correct grind for the type of machine in use. Ensure all equipment is clean before use. Add boiling water to the coffee and allow to infuse. The infusion time must be controlled according to the type of coffee being used and the method of making. Control the temperature since to boil coffee is to spoil coffee (it will develop a bitter taste). Strain and serve. Offer milk(hot or cold) or cream separately and sugar and alternatives. EVALUATION What is… Read More »COFFEE MAKING SERVICE

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PLAT DUJOUR | Hausa Dishes, Igbo Dishes, Yoruba Dishes, FOREIGN DISHES & European Dishes

This is also known as a specialty menu.It can be a set priced menu or individually priced menu or individually priced dish specializing in the food of a particular country, religion or a specialized food itself. The specialty could be ethnic, i.e. food in the menu could reflect Chinese, Indian, Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba, Greek,Africa or specialty like diabetic, hypertensive etc.It is usually changed daily and cheaper or better. In Nigeria, different ethnic groups have their own traditional dishes/ meal. Examples are: Hausa Dishes Taushe da tu won shinkafa Karkashi da tuwonshinkafa Miyan wake da sakwara Miyanridi da brabisko Igbo Dishes Offeowerri Offeujuju Offeonugbu with fufu Uziza and utazi Yoruba Dishes Ewedu soup and amala Egusi soup with pounded yam Efoelegusi and eba Ikokore   EVALUATION Mention two Hausa dishes Mention two Igbo dishes   FOREIGN DISHES These are also called civilized dishes. These are dishes that are not naturally taken… Read More »PLAT DUJOUR | Hausa Dishes, Igbo Dishes, Yoruba Dishes, FOREIGN DISHES & European Dishes

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CARTE DUJOUR MENU

Carte du jour means menu of the day. It refers to a special menu offered to the guests that is different from those on the menu card. This menu combines the alacarte, table d’hote and plat du jour menu, each being priced according to type.This implies that the meals could be individually priced, i.e. ala carte menu;collectively priced and still be the special menu for the day.In other words a restaurant or eatery that operates this style is flexible and will satisfy customers with each of the various options.  EXAMPLE OF A LA CARTE MENU FOR LUNCH STARTER *Children stock soup with 2 slices of bread.                                                                          #650 *Mixed vegetable saladchopped lettuce, tomatoes, green pepper and cucumber. #550 *Green salad crispy lettuce and cucumber in vinaigrette dressing.                                      #750 MAIN COURSE *Roast fish served with chips/fried and seasoned vegetable.                                               #900 *Grilled chicken in chili, served with potatoes or butter rice.          … Read More »CARTE DUJOUR MENU

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LUNCHEON AND DINNER | FULL EXPLANATION

LUNCH is the main meal of the day. It is taken in the afternoon as the midday meal. Lunch is wider in scope as it could include plate du jour, carte du jour, continental menu or local menu. The soup or protein is always served first. LUNCHEON is a midday meal, served as part of entertainment of guests in a gathering. It is an afternoon party where a light meal is served in connection with a meeting or other special occasion. For Special party in our localities the following dishes are generally acceptable: *Chicken jollof rice *Turkey fried rice *Beef coconut rice *Fish curried rice *Lamb braised rice *Varieties of swallow ranging from poundo, wheat meal, semovita,amala, eba ,tuwo and *Soups like vegetable,melon,ogbonor,ewedu.okro etc. Varieties allow the guests to make their preferences.   EVALUATION Differentiate between lunch and luncheon. List three different that can be served in a luncheon.  … Read More »LUNCHEON AND DINNER | FULL EXPLANATION

catering craft practiceS

BREAKFAST SERVICE (CONTINENTAL & NIGERIAN)

Breakfast is the first and most important meal of the day used to break the night fast.It must not be omitted. It should be light, but substantial oily and heavy foods should be avoided.Breakfast should be able to sustain an individual until lunch. In catering establishments e.g. breakfast in hotels may be served in the hotel restaurant or dining room, or in a breakfast room set aside for this meal or in the hotel guest bedroom or suite. TYPES OF BREAKFAST CAFÉ COMPLET The term café complet is widely used in continental Europe and it means a continental breakfast with coffee as the beverage. The term ‘the complet’ is also used with tea provided as the beverage (teacomplet). CAFÉ SIMPLE OR THE SIMPLE Café simple or the simple is just a beverage (coffee or tea) with nothing to eat. Only the beverage served as breakfast.   EVALUATION Define breakfast. Mention… Read More »BREAKFAST SERVICE (CONTINENTAL & NIGERIAN)

TYPES OF MENU | TYPES, EXAMPLES, ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

A menu is a list of dishes served or available to be served at a meal. It can also be referred to as a selling aid. TYPES OF MENU A’LA CARTE (FROM THE CARD) A la carte means cook to order. It is a menu with all dishes individually priced. There are many dishes at different price for the customer to choose and compile their own menu which may be one, two or more courses. A true ala carte dish should be cooked to order and the customer should be prepared to wait. EXAMPLES OF ALACRATE MENU SAMPLE 1 STARTER *Children stock soup with 2 slices of bread                                                                           #650 *Mix vegetable salad, chopped lettuce, tomatoes, green pepper and cucumber                #550 *Green salad crispy lettuce and cucumber in vinaigrette dressing                                       #750   MAIN COURSE *Roast fish served with chips/fried and seasoned vegetable                                                #900 *Grilled chicken in chill, served… Read More »TYPES OF MENU | TYPES, EXAMPLES, ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

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FACTORS THAT AFFECT MENU PLANNING | ADVANTAGES, FACTORS, REQUIREMENT & VEGETARIANISM

MENU PLANNING This is an act of deciding in advance the types of foods or dishes to be included in a meal. This is necessary when food has to be bought, prepared, and served in large quantities to people of varying tastes and requirements. Menu planning is important for meeting the nutritional requirements of family members or guests. Advantages of Menu Planning Menu planning helps to provide appetizing, nourishing and attractive meals to customers at a fair price. Menu planning ensures that food is not wasted because any left overs can be creatively incorporated in the next day’s menu which is already planned out. Planned menus help to identify dishes that did not sell well in the past and the favorite dishes of the customers. It saves time and effort spent on ordering, shopping and receiving of food materials. Well planned menu increases frequency of customers and attract new customers.… Read More »FACTORS THAT AFFECT MENU PLANNING | ADVANTAGES, FACTORS, REQUIREMENT & VEGETARIANISM

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MEANING AND SCOPE OF MENU | ORIGIN, FUNCTIONS, MEANING, SCOPE & CLASSIC SEQUENCE

ORIGIN OF MENU The menu is primarily a selling aid. Originally the bill of fare (English) or menu (French) was not presented at the table.  Banquets generally consisted of two courses.  Each made up of a variety of dishes, anything from 10-40 in numbers. The first set of dishes were placed on the table before the diners entered – hence the word entrée – and when consumed, these dishes were removed or relieved by another set of dishes – hence the words ‘relieves or removes’.   The word ‘menu’ dates back to the 18th century although the custom of making a list of the courses for a meal is much older. Modern menu first appeared during the early 19th century in the Parsan Restaurant of the Palais – Royas. Although, the actual number of courses on a menu and dishes within each course will depend on the size and class… Read More »MEANING AND SCOPE OF MENU | ORIGIN, FUNCTIONS, MEANING, SCOPE & CLASSIC SEQUENCE

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FRENCH TERM USED FOR STAFF IN CATERING ESTABLIHMENTS

FRENCH TERM USED FOR STAFF IN CATERING ESTABLIHMENTS   S/NO ENGLISH FRENCH 1 Head waiter/captain/supervisor Maitre d’ hotel 2 Station waiter Chef De Rang 3 Kitchen porter Le Garcon De Cuisine 4 Head chef Le Chef De Cuisine 5 Waiter/Server Commis de rang/ Garcon 6 Barman Garcon de Comotor 7 Room Service/ Assistance flour waiter Commis d’etage 8 Still room maid La Fille d’ Office 9 Still room man Le Garcon d’ office 10 Cleaning waiter/Bus boys/bus person Commis De Barrasseur EVALUATION QUESTIONS Give the French word used for the following:- Still room man Cleaning waiter Bar man Station waiter Kitchen porter. Head chef READING ASSINMGNENT: Read more on the FRENCH TERMS used in catering establishments (Catering and craft practice SS3 by Aminu Bariki Pages 87-88) See also PORTION CONTROL CONTROL SYSTEM IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS BILL PREPRATION AND PRESENTATION | BILL METHODS. CHECKS, PREPAID, NO CHARGE & VOUCHER COSTING |… Read More »FRENCH TERM USED FOR STAFF IN CATERING ESTABLIHMENTS

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COMMON WORD USED IN CATERING AND HOPITALITY INDUSTRIES SAND THEIR MEANING.

Advanced deposit: A deposit paid by a guest prior to guarantee a room reservation. Allotment: The number of room set aide for a particular purpose, such as group sales on tour wholesale. Back office: The department of the hotel that I responsible for accounting, data processing and manage0ent report. Bed and break fat plan: A room tariff that include a breakfast. Booking: To sell a reservation Check in: This is the process of greeting and registering a guest, verifying tne method of payment and dispending room keys Check out: This is the process of facilitating guest departure. Deluxe: The highest level of elegance and service. Double/Double: A room occupied by two beds. Double occupancy: A rate based on two adults occupying a room Folio: A guest record  EVALUATION QUESTIONS Write out the meaning of the following words in English language: Check out ii. Folio iii. Double/double iv. Double occupancy.  GENERAL… Read More »COMMON WORD USED IN CATERING AND HOPITALITY INDUSTRIES SAND THEIR MEANING.

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PORTION CONTROL

Portion control is referred to as the means of controlling the quantity or size of food or drinks to be sold to each guest. It helps in maximizing profit and cutting of excess loss in catering establishment. FACTORS THAT DETERMINES PORTION SIZE Cost of the ingredient Price charged on menu Types of customers catered for Customer’s turnover Competition Customer purchasing /bargaining power Types of menu and variety in the menu.  EVALUATION QUESTIONS Define portion control. Mention the factors that determine portion control. METHODS OF PORTION CONTROL Standard recipe: the standard recipe prepared should be used be used regularly so as to bring about consistency in the weight and quantity of the portion prepared. Portion chart: the portion chart showing the standard portion of the dishes should be displayed to help in controlling size of the dishes. Comparing expected portion: this is done to ascertain if the portion served is adequate… Read More »PORTION CONTROL

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CONTROL SYSTEM IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

Control in catering establishment is used to enable the management and staff to know what is happening to the food and beverage service and other related incomes. Therefore, control system in any catering establishment covers the sales of all food and beverages sold which in turn helps to attain a maximum return.                         FUNCTIONS OF CONTROL SYSTEM The control system monitors the area where food and beverage sales take place. It helps to reduce the rate of fraud and wastage to the nearest minimum. It ensures all credit sales are paid for. It gives a breakdown of sales and incomes received as well as initiate any kind of adjustment and Improvement required. It ensures efficient control of all items issued from the various departments.                      METHODS OF CONTROL IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENT The following are the four basic methods of control system in catering establishment:- Order taking methods Operational system… Read More »CONTROL SYSTEM IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

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BILL PREPRATION AND PRESENTATION | BILL METHODS. CHECKS, PREPAID, NO CHARGE & VOUCHER

Bill is a paper containing the amount of the good or services render. It is to customers/guest after services are rendered in a restaurant, hotel, etc. When a bill is being requested for by a guest, the waiter collects it from the cashier and check if the items entered are well calculated before giving it to the guest using a side plate or a bill folder. BILLING METHODS Bill as check Separate Bill method Prepaid No charge Deferred/Account billing Voucher Bill with order  EVALUATION QUESTIONS Explain billing Mention 7 billing methods    BILL AS CHECK: This method is used in some restaurants small hotels and cafeteria; when a customer request for the bill, the waiter or cashier checks to know if everything has been entered on the duplicate copy of the food and drink check and the bill is being totaled and presented to the customer. The customer may pay… Read More »BILL PREPRATION AND PRESENTATION | BILL METHODS. CHECKS, PREPAID, NO CHARGE & VOUCHER

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COSTING | ADVANTAGES, ELEMENTS & DISH COSTING

Costing is ascertaining the amount suitable for an item or thing. It can also be defined as the analysis and allocation of expenditure for the purpose of determining the cost of each service.           ADVANTAGES OF AN EFFICIENT COSTING IN CATERING It gives a glance of the net profit made by each section of the establishment. It shows the cost of each meal produced. The source of the economy will be revealed. Costing provides information which is necessary for the formation or adoption of a sound pricing policy. It enables the caterer or hotel to keep to a budget. It helps show the analysis of income and expenditure. It provides quotation for special functions like parties, weddings, reception,banquet.  EVALUATION QUESTIONS Define costing in terms of control in catering. List and explain 5 advantages of an efficient costing in catering.                        ELEMENTS OF COSTING MATERIAL COST: – This is the… Read More »COSTING | ADVANTAGES, ELEMENTS & DISH COSTING

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COCKTAILS – FULL EXPLANATION

Cocktails These are normally drinks of about 10cl which is made from a mixture of different ingredients so blended that no single component dominates the other. They can be served before meal to the appetite or after meal to provide a sweet testing finis to the meal.  METHODS OF MAKING COCKTAIL Shaking method: Cocktail shaker or Boston shaker with hawthorn strainer and blender for mixing are used as the equipment to make the cocktail. All the ingredients are shaken very well and blended that no ingredient predominate the other. Stirring method: bar mixing glass, bar spoon with muddler and hawthorn strainer are used as equipment when the ingredient are wine base and clear the cocktail should be stirred. POINTS TO CONSIDER IN MAKING COCKTAILS The ice to be used should be clear and clean. Do not overfill the cocktail shaker. Effervescent drinks should never be shaken. To stir, be short… Read More »COCKTAILS – FULL EXPLANATION

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BEVERAGE IN RELATION TO STILL ROOM

The still room provides food items and beverages required for the service of meals that are not catered for by the major department in the food service operation, such as the kitchen, larder and pastry etc. the duties performed in this area will vary according to the type of meals offered and the size of the establishment concerned. Equipment in the still room is similar to that of the kitchen.  A wide range of food items are offered so as to ensure their proper storage, preparation and presentation. A considerable amount of equipment is used. The following are items that might be needed in a still room: Refrigerator for storage of milk, cream, butter, juice, etc. Hot and cold beverages making facilities. Large double sink and draining board for washing up processes. Dish washer of a size suitable for the still room but large enough to ensure efficient turnover of… Read More »BEVERAGE IN RELATION TO STILL ROOM

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NON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES | TEA, COFFEE, SQUASHES, JUICES, SYRUPS, AERATED WATERS, & BITTERS

These are beverages that do not contain alcohol. e.g,  tea, coffee, juices, squashes, syrup, aerated water, natural spring water or mineral water, zobo, ginger drinks, lemonade drink, orange drinks, pineapple drinks, etc.                   CLASSIFICATION OF NON              ALCOHOLIC DRINK Water is essential to human survival. It must be potable and served hygienically. Refreshing drinks: It includes coke, squashes, syrup, soda, tonic water, etc. Stimulants are tea and coffee. Nourishing drinks: It includes Ovaltine, Bournvita, Horlicks, etc. TEA it is an evergreen plant of the camellia family containing caffeine, volatile oil and tannin. It is prepared by infusion for a shot time and taken as a stimulant drink or beverages e.g. there are three main types of tea which are: Black tea, Green tea and Oolong tea. Preparation of Tea Pre-heat a clean tea pot by pouring boiling water into it and allowing it to stand… Read More »NON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES | TEA, COFFEE, SQUASHES, JUICES, SYRUPS, AERATED WATERS, & BITTERS

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INTRODUCTION TO BEVERAGES | FULL EXPLANATION

Beverages are simply fluids apart from water consumed to stimulate, nourish, refresh the body and can also quench taste. They are alcoholic and non alcoholic. Types of beverages Alcoholic beverages Non alcoholic beverages                               ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES These are simply beverages that contain some percentage of ethyl alcohol between 1% -75%. It is either obtained by fermentation of sugar based foods or the distillation of fermented products e.g. spirits, liqueur, beer, cider and wine, local or traditional African beer (burukutu). Alcohol is the liquid made by the fermentation or distillation of ethanol (the sugar present in intoxicating drinks). It is also used as fuel and in thermometer. Alcohol is obtained in two forms name: Fermentation: The sugar in fruit or grain is converted into alcohol by the action of bacteria. Carbon dioxide a bi-product is retained for fizzy drinks like beer and champagne. Distillation: The fermented mash of fruit or grain… Read More »INTRODUCTION TO BEVERAGES | FULL EXPLANATION

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