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Agricultural Science (Primary Classes)

Agricultural Science

FARM ANIMALS

Criteria for classifying farm animals and classes Size Habitat Reproduction Stomach type Uses   Animal husbandry is the science of breeding and caring for farm animals. The farm animals being cared for are referred to as livestock. There are five categories of livestock based on some criteria. Animals can be classified according to their sizes, habitat, reproduction pattern, stomach type or digestive system and uses or purpose for which they are kept/reared.   Classification of animals based on their size This criterion focuses on how big or small the animal is. There are two classes based on size Largefarmanimalsg horse, cattle, camel, donkey. Smallfarmanimalsg rabbit, snail, goat, sheep, pig, chicken etc.   Classification of animals based on their habitat animal habitat refers to the home or dwelling place of an animal. The place an animals is adapted to living is either in water or on land. Animals that lives on… Read More »FARM ANIMALS

agric primary classes

FORMS OF ENERGY

Energy is the ability to do work or get work done. Energy is used to lift things, to heat up our food, give us light, power the car and generators etc. A machine is an energy changer. It changes one form of energy into another more useful form. Something only happens when energy is changed from one form to another form. This enables energy to be used to do work.   Energy is the fundamental need of our everyday life, So much so, that the quality of life and even its Sustenance is dependent on the availability of energy. Energy   is everywhere around us and it takes different forms.                 FORMS OF ENERGY Mechanical energy Chemical energy Electrical energy Heat energy Light energy Solar energy Sound energy          SOURCES OF ENERGY Mechanical energy- Human body, wind. Chemical energy- Food, batteries, kerosene, petrol, coal, etc Electrical energy- Electricity, generators,… Read More »FORMS OF ENERGY

agric primary classes

MEANING AND TYPES OF BUILDING

MEANING OF BUILDING Building is a structure with walls and a roof, such as a house, factory, school, church, mosque, shop etc. Shelter is one of the basic needs of life. A shelter is a basic architectural structure or building that provides protection from the local environment. Having a place of shelter, of safety and of retreat I.e. a home, is commonly considered a fundamental human need. Sometimes it is called a home or house.            TYPES OF BUILDING There are different types of building- a bungalow, storey building, detached building, duplex. Educational or institutional building-Primary, Secondary, Polytechnics, College of education, and University buildings. Residential buildings. Assembly buildings-Hall, Cinema, Church, Mosque, etc Factory and industrial buildings: Worship centers: Church, Mosque, and Shrine. Business buildings Hospital building   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. The Teacher introduces the new topic. The Teacher explains the note in… Read More »MEANING AND TYPES OF BUILDING

agric primary classes

MEANING OF SHAPE CONSTRUCTIONS

Shapes can be flat and 2-dimensional, like a rectangle or a triangle. However, shape construction is the making of 3-dimensional shapes such as cylinder, cone, funnel, box, etc. using paper. Materials can be reshaped. There are different methods used in shape construction such as: folding and bending. The various materials used in shape construction will determine the type of method that will be used. The concept of shape construction will enable pupils identify and organize visual information.   MATERIALS USED FOR SHAPE CONSTRUCTION   Paper Metal. Wood              SHAPE CONSTRUCTION METHOD There different method of shape construction and they include the following: Bending Folding           SHAPE CONSTRUCTION WITH WOOD Cylinder Cone Box   SHAPE CONSTRUCTION WITH PAPER Cylinder Cone Box Funnel   SHAPE CONSTRUCTION WITH METAL House Car Knife STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES 1.The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. The Teacher introduces the new topic. The Teacher explains the note… Read More »MEANING OF SHAPE CONSTRUCTIONS

agric primary classes

USES OF ICT GADGET

ICT gadget makes work and communication easier and faster. It helps individuals and organizations grow. ICT gadgets increase productivity. It allows people to work at home and anywhere. It brings people together. For family and friends and other business partners. It makes teaching and learning more easier. They are used for entertainments.   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. The Teacher introduces the new topic. The Teacher explains the note in details. The Teacher gives room for pupils to ask questions. The Teacher evaluates the pupils.   ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 1 .Explain the meaning of ICT gadget Identify common ICT gadget. State the uses of ICT GADGET   ASSIGNMENT Define ICT gadget State five examples of ICT gadget   See also MEANING AND COMMON ICT GADGET IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY MEANING OF FARM RECORD SIGN OF ILL – HEALTH IN CHICKEN POULTRY – CHICKEN

agric primary classes

MEANING AND COMMON ICT GADGET

IDENTIFICATION OF ICT GADGET ICT are the initials of information and Communication Technology. This is an important part of modern living. ICT gadgets transmit and receive information. For example, mobile phone, television, radio, etc.   ICT Gadgets are devises used for transmitting and receiving information. It enables individuals and 0rganisation (companies. Governments, and educational establishment) to communicate message from one person to another quickly and efficiently. They operate by using energy, usually electricity from either mains socket or batteries. They make our life easier and perform specific functions.   We use different ICT gadget in our homes, schools and workplace. Some of these gadget includes: Remote control Mobile phone Digital camera DVD player MP3 player Radio Television etc   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. The Teacher introduces the new topic. The Teacher explains the note in details. The Teacher gives room for pupils to ask… Read More »MEANING AND COMMON ICT GADGET

agric primary classes

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

MEANING OF TECHNOLOGY Technology means any inventions, including tools, machines, materials, techniques, and sources of power that makes work and lives easier for people. Computers and mobiles are not only technology. Technology is whenever people used knowledge to create a new thing to solve existing problems.   Technology makes it easy to matches and lighter instead of stones to produce fire. Technology, therefore, is the application of science for practical purposes, especially at home, in school, office and industry.   IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY Cooking-using firewood, kerosene stove, gas cooker, electric cooking Washing-washing clothes with machine. Preserving-using salt, frying, drying in the sun, refrigerator and or deep freezer. Relaxation-listening to radio, watching movies on TV or in cinema, playing in the yard and indoor games.   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The Teacher revises the previous week lesson. The Teacher introduces the new topic. The Teacher explains the note in details. The Teacher… Read More »IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

agric primary classes

MEANING OF FARM RECORD

A farm record is a document (in most cases a book) that is used to keep account of different activities, events, materials etc. regarding the farm operations. Most Nigerian and African farmers don’t keep farm records and accounts, so they have poor farm management. Mainly, it is influenced by the fact that most of the farmers in Nigeria are illiterates and can hardly read or write. TYPES OF FARM RECORDS There are different types of farm records a farmer should keep to run a successful farm business. They include: Daily farm records Records of farm implements and equipment Record of agricultural inputs Records of livestock and livestock products Records of animal feeds Production records Records for farm use Farm expenditure records Workers records Vehicle records Sales record   REASONS WHY FARMER KEEP FARM RECORDS Farm records help a farmer to keep stock and manage each aspect of the farm properly.… Read More »MEANING OF FARM RECORD

agric primary classes

SIGN OF ILL – HEALTH IN CHICKEN

A disease can spread rapidly among chickens like any other farm animals because they are usually kept together in a cage, sharing the food and water trough. This makes it easy for disease to spread from the sick and infect the healthy chickens. SIGNS OF ILL – HEALTH IN CHICKEN The most common signs of ill in chicken include: Roughened feathers, Discharge from the nostril Mucorish discharge Coughing Sneezing Weakness Loss of appetite Loss of weight Dullness Reduction in egg production among layers Retarded growth Chicken huddles together and drops as if the birds are feeling cold Chickens standing with their eyes closed, Presence of scores on wattles and combs. Reduced feed intake Reduced water intake Low egg production   GENERAL DISEASE CONTROL PRACTICES The following can only be used as guidelines for disease control, for proper disease diagnosis and treatment, consult the veterinarian. Don’t overcrowd brooders Adequate ventilation Feed… Read More »SIGN OF ILL – HEALTH IN CHICKEN

agric primary classes

POULTRY – CHICKEN

Poultry are domesticated bird kept by humans for eggs, their meat or their features. Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. They are one of the cheapest sources of meat and can be kept by anyone, even at the back of the house. TYPES OF CHICKEN Eggs laying chicken Table meat chicken Dual purpose chicken (for egg and meat production) SELECTION OF HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT Housing Concrete building Wooden and metal cages/wooden shed Equipment Baby chick cage Layer chicken cage Poultry feather removal FEEDING Chicks mash (2 months – 4 months, about 8 weeks) Growers mash (2 months – 4 months, about 8 – 16 weeks) Broiler starter (for meat producer only about 9 – 14 weeks) Layers mash (for more eggs) SOURCE OF DAY OLD CHICKS Buying Hatchery HOUSING SYSTEM OF POULTRY KEEPING Free range system Semi intensive system Intensive system Extensive system The fold… Read More »POULTRY – CHICKEN

agric primary classes

POULTRY (CHICKENS)

MEANING OF POULTRY Poultry are domesticated bird kept by humans for eggs, their meat or their features. Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. WAYS OF REARING CHICKEN Traditional method Modern method IMPORTANCE OF POULTRY Source of income Provision of eggs Provision of meat Provision of raw materials Provision of poultry manure Game (bird like parrot, ostrich and cock are used for games to entertain people) The feathers are used for making pillows and beds. The feathers are used for design and decoration.   STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES Step 1: Teacher revises the previous topic Step2: Teacher introduces the new topic Step 3: Teacher explains the new topic Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions Step45 Teacher evaluates the pupils   Evaluation/ Assignment Explain the meaning of poultry; Method 2 ways of rearing chicken; State 5 importance of poultry.   See also LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION – RABBIT REARING Meaning of… Read More »POULTRY (CHICKENS)

agric primary classes

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION – RABBIT REARING

Rabbits belong to the group of farm animals referred to small stock. If raised under suitable conditions, their products can be very high. Many people keep rabbits as a hobby while some keep them to make money. RABBIT REARING Male – buck Female – doe Baby – kit   CHOICE OF RABBIT FOR REARING Ability to grow rapidly, A good converter of food into body weight. Ability to resist diseases (disease resistant), Ability to give birth to many young ones in a litter, Good quality hides and skin.   HOUSING/HUTCHES Rabbits are kept in cages for safety from harsh weather and predictors. Mature rabbits are kept singly in HUTCHES (cages), usually made of wooden or metal materials. The type of housing for rabbits and guinea pigs will depend on the following factors: Availability of local housing materials; The condition of environment; The size of the enterprise; The amount of money… Read More »LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION – RABBIT REARING

agric primary classes

Meaning of Weed

Description of a Weed There are numerous definitions of a weed, including: a plant out of place and not intentionally sown a plant growing where it is not wanted a plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered. (R.W.Emerson) Plants that are competitive, persistent, pernicious, and interfere negatively with human activity (Ross, et. al.) Cultural weed control – One of the easiest ways to control weeds is through prevention or cultural control. Close planting in the garden can reduce weed growth by eliminating open space. Cover crops are good for this as well. Adding mulch will prevent light from getting to weed seeds and prevents growth. Mechanical weed control – Mechanical control of common weed plants can be accomplished through hand pulling, hoeing, digging or mowing (which slows growth and reduces seed formation). While these methods are effective, they can be time consuming. Chemical weed control Characteristics of weeds Certain… Read More »Meaning of Weed

agric primary classes

MAINTENANCE OF FARM AND ANIMAL TOOLS

The following are ways we can care and maintain crop and animal farm tools in other for them to work effectively and prevent them from getting damaged. Clean the tools after use by washing and drying them under the sun or in a cool place. Use the tools for the purpose for which they are made. Store tools cleaned, in a safe and dry place after use. Sharpen the tools in a termite free area. Repair all broken or damaged parts. Oil and grease or lubricate moveable parts of the tools to reduce friction. Keep records of the movement of farm tools. Do not store in head pans and watering cans place upside down after use to ensure proper drying. Do not leave tools with sharp parts carelessly around. Do not allow children to play with tools. REASONS FOR MAINTAINING AND CARING FOR FARM TOOLS *To reduce durability *T o… Read More »MAINTENANCE OF FARM AND ANIMAL TOOLS

agric primary classes

Simple Farm Tools

Farm tools are instruments we use in the farm to aid us in farm work, thereby making it easy. Such equipment include cutlass, wheel barrow hoe, shovel and axe. DESCRIPTION OF SIMPLS FARM TOOLS PICK AXE The pick axe is made up of a long wooden handle with a double headed thick metal blade that is attached to the handle through a loop. The head of the pick axe is made up of two edges, one part of the end of the blade is pointed, while the other end is flat and sharp edged. They are mainly used for breaking up of hard soil, and digging up of roots and tree stumps. HAND FORK When it is viewed, the hand fork, looks like the kitchen fork we eat with, just that it is a little bit bigger, it has a short wooden or metal handle with four prongs. It is… Read More »Simple Farm Tools

agric primary classes

Animal Farm Tools

ANIMAL FARM TOOLS AND THEIR USES Animal farm tools Fishing nets Traps iii. Hook and line Basket Watering troughs Feeding troughs, etc. Major uses of Animal Farm Tools Drinking trough: Holds water or drugs for animals. Feeding trough: Holds feeds (foods) or drugsfor animals iii. Fishing net: It is used for catching and collecting fish from the river Battery cage: for keeping poultry (birds) – Observe the wind   Strategies & Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic. Step3: Teacher explains the new topic. Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions. Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.   Assessment & Evaluation: Define simple animals’ farm tools List some examples of simple animal farm tools. State the description of some simple animal farm tools   ASSIGNMENT List 4 example of animal farm tools Describe the following Battery cage Fishing net Drinking trough   See also Farm tools… Read More »Animal Farm Tools

agric primary classes

Farm tools

FARM’S TOPIC TODAY IS SIMPLE FARM TOOL Simple farm tools are tools or simple machines that are used on the farm to make it easier for farmers to use. There are many tools used on farms that are not “farm only” or that is assigned to a particular use like that of shovels, brooms ,rakes etc but they have their own place on farms. They can be used easily by peasant farmers to produce food crops such as rice, beans, that can be eaten by the family and not for sell. Farm tools are simple or small equipment operated by hand to carry out agricultural activities. The farm tools we are referring to are the ones that are powered by human energy and muscle.   Examples of simple farm tools Cutlass Hoe Watering can Take Broom Sickle Harvester Headpan Axe Hand trowel Garden fork Mattocks Crowbar Pickaxe Strategies & Activities:… Read More »Farm tools

agric primary classes

Classes of food

A carb is a macronutrient—a sugar, starch or fiber found in grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. They’re hard to avoid and they’re one of the most basic food groups humans need to stay alive.   Sources of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are found in a wide array of both healthy and unhealthy foods—bread, beans, milk, popcorn, potatoes, cookies, spaghetti, soft drinks, corn, and cherry pie. They also come in a variety of forms.   There are three main sources of carbohydrate which include (i) Starches: Starches are present in plenty of cereals, roots, tubes and also in plant stems. Cereals (wheat, rice) account for most of the dietary carbohydrate. (ii) Sugar: Sugar can be found in fruits, honey and things that produce sugar. Glucose is an essential element of sugar. This is very much needed for small children, especially during the period of teething and their growth stage. Lactose and jams,… Read More »Classes of food

agric primary classes

How to raise livestock

PROCEDURE FOR REARING ANIMALS Construct a house or provide Provide shelter Provide necessary rearing equipment Buy young animal to rear Provision of food Provision of water daily Provide medication when necessary Clean the house regularly Routine check by veterinary personnel Removal of sick and dead animals Sell of slaughter when matured   Strategies & Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic. Step3: Teacher explains the new topic. Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions. Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.   Assessment & Evaluation Mention the procedure for rearing animals   ASSIGNMENT Mention 10 procedures for rearing animals.   See also Dirty environment and starvation Cares for young animals Healthy growth for animals Animal feed Livestock Management

agric primary classes

Dirty environment and starvation

A dirty environment is an unhygienic environment that is harmful to both man and animals, dirty environment are made of dirty materials or substances   MEANING OF STARVATION Starvation is a lack of food. Animals need to feed well in order to grow well. EFFECTS OF DIRTY ENVIRONMENT ON POOR GROWING ANIMALS The heath of the animals will reduce The animal will become sick No hygiene water and food for animals Dirty environment will produce dirty and unhealthy animals Diseases contaminated animals will infect other animals Dirty and unhealthy animals attract diseases The animal will starve to death   EFFECTS OF STARVATION ON POOR GROWING ANIMALS Faintness Dizziness Blood pressure reduce Weakness Dehydration Unable to breathe well Thyroid disorder Body temperature fluctuation Organ failure Death   Strategies & Activities: Step: Teacher revises the previous topic. Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic. Step3: Teacher explains the new topic. Step4: Teacher… Read More »Dirty environment and starvation

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